N190 Midterms Focus Review - N190 Midterms Focus Review 4 basic Techniques of assessment 1 inspection 2 auscultation 3 percussion 4 palpation Type

N190 Midterms Focus Review - N190 Midterms Focus...

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N190 Midterms Focus Review 4 basic Techniques of assessment: 1. inspection 2. auscultation 3. percussion 4. palpation Type of instruments used in clinical setting 1. Doppler – used to assess the pulse when it cannot be palpated 2. Stadiometer – used to measure height 3. Wood lamp – used to assess the fungal infection on the skin 4. Goniometer - instrument used to measure the degree of joint flexion an extension 5. transilluminator - instrument used to detect air blood fluid or mass in body cavity SKIN The layers of the skin a. epidermis - the top layer of the skin b. dermis - the second layer which contains nerves blood vessels and hair follicles c. subcutaneous tissue - the third layer which is the and then followed by the muscles and bones the fourth layer The grading of the skin edema - when you are assessing for skin edema you have to use your finger pads and press it around the bony prominences of the body parts - 3 finger pads Grading Edema 0 = no edema 1+ = 2 mm 2+ = 4 mm 3+ = 6 mm 4+ = 8 mm Stage of decubitus Stage 1 – one layer of the skin is affected, just reddened (epidermis) Stage 2 – 2 layers of the skin involved (epidermis & dermis) Stage 3 – lesions involving 3 layers of the skin (epidermis, dermis & Subcutaneous tissue) Stage 4 – lesions involving 4 layers of the skin (epidermis, dermis, Subcutaneous tissue, muscles & bones) Types of Lesion & Shapes a. Annular lesion - one circle configuration b. Target lesion – lesion with concentric circles of colors with dot at the center; AKA “bullseye” c. Wheal lesion – reddened with irregular borders caused by insect bite or hives d. Macule – primary lesion that is flat, change in skin color - less than 1 cm Examples: freckles petechiae chloasma – mask of pregnancy
e. Confluent – lesions that run together Examples: urticaria f. Patch – type of macule that is more than 1 cm Examples: vitiligo port wine stain Mongolian spots g. Vesicles – primary lesion elevated fluid filled, round or oval with translucent wall - less than 0.5 cm Examples: chicken pox Poison Ivy Small burned blisters h. Bullae – type of vesicle more than 0.5 cm Example: large burned blister i. Port wine stain – vascular lesion on the face that is flat, deep purple red, irregular in shape - deepens in color when the person is highly emotional or crying j. Spider angioma – vascular lesion that is flat, bright red dot with tiny radiating blood vessels - ranging from pinpoint to 2 cm k. Hemangioma – vascular lesion that is bright red and raised, does not blanch with pressure - usually present at birth and disappears by the age of 10 - 2 – 10 cm l. Venous lake – vascular lesion on the face, neck, ears, or lips on elderly people - soft, compressible, slightly elevated - dark blue to purple in color m. Keloid – secondary lesion that is elevated irregular darkened are of excess scar tissue n. Discrete – lesions that are separated and discrete Examples: Molluscum o. Grouped – lesions that appear in clusters Examples: purpural lesion p. Linear – lesions that appear as a line Examples: Scratches q. Polycyclic – lesions that are circular but united Examples: Psoriasis r.

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