Review Study Notes - FI—-——.a Study Notes"...

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Unformatted text preview: FI—-——_.a Study Notes "\ Sentence Patterns 0 Intransitive Sentence that do not take a direct object (subject + verb) e.g. The farmer works; They walk - Transitive Sentences which take a direct object (subject + verb + direct object) e.g. The woman has a rose; We call the farmer 0 Special lntransitive Certain intransitive sentences take an object in the dative rather than the accusative case (subject + verb + object in the dative) e.g. domino parent (they obey the master); rosae feminis placent (the roses please the women) noceo, nocere, nocui (+ dat.) pareo, parere, parui (+dat.) placeo, placer, placui (+dat.) studio, studere, studui (+dat.) persuadeo, persuadere, persuasi (+dat.) credo, credere, credidl, creditus (+dat.) servio, servire, servivi or servii (+dat.) 0000000 0 Linking Sentences can use verbs to link the subject to an adjective or noun (otherwise known as the subject complement). The subject complement will always be nominative. (subject + linking verb + subject complement) e.g. viri sunt liberi (the men are free); viri sunt (they are men) 0 Factitive Occurs when verbs meaning make, choose, call, etc. has both an accusative direct object and a second accusative (noun or adjective) commonly called the obj_ec_t__complement (subject + factitive verb + direct object + object complement) e.g. urbem Romam vocavit (he called the city Rome); eum consulem faciunt (they make him consul) creo, creare, creavi, creates facio, facere, feci, factus habeo, habere, habui, habitus iudico, iudicare, iudicavi, iudicatus voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus F 00000 \ ses of the infinitive o Complementary Infinitive These complete the meaning of another verb. e.g. laborar'e debeo (I ought to work); optatne docere? (does he desire to teach?) Infinitive as a Noun The infinitive can also be used as a noun. It is considered neuter and singular, and it retains its ability to govern an object. e.g. amare est bonum (to love is good/loving is a good thing); videre pontum nautis placet (to see the ocean pleases the sailors) Uses of the Genitive Case 0 Genitive of Possession e.g. iiber puellae (the book of the girl); animus viri (the spirit of the man) - Partitive Genitive e.g. turba virorum (a crowd of men); nemo feminarum (no one of the women) Uses of the Dative Case 0 Dative of Indirect Object — the person to whom something is given, said or done e.g. pueliae donum dat (he gives a gift to the girl); viro fabulas narramus (we tell stories to the man) Dative of Reference — the person to whom a statement refers or is of interest e.g. domino laborat (he is working for the master); pueris donum habet (he has a gift for the boys) Dative of Possession e.g. viro est iiber (the man has a book/the book belongs to the man); pueris pecunia erat (the boys used to have money) Uses of the Abiative Case Ablative of Means/Instrument - the thing by or with which something is done e.g. oculis video (I see with my eyes); armis pugnant (they fight with weapons); litteris monstmmus (we show this by means of a letter) Ablative of Accompaniment — the person/people with whom something is done e.g. cum amicis iaborat (she works with her friends) Ablative of Manner _ the way in which something is done e.g. cum cura laborat (she works with care) Ablative of Specification _ to show in what respect something is or is done e.g. corpore senex, non animo est (he is an old man in body, but not at heart); dux nomine erat (he was commander in name) Often used with the adjectives dingus and indignus e.g. hi laude digni sunt (they are worthy of praise); haec indigna homine libero sunt (these things are unworthy of a free man) :S of the imperfect . \ 0 Continuous Action — he was teaching/he kept teaching Repeated/Habitual Action — he used to teach/he taught every year Attempted Action — he tried to teach Beginning of an Action — he began to teach Uses of the Perfect Historical Perfect — corresponds to the simple past tense in English (tense of narration) e.g. l traveled to ltaly and saw the Roman Forum ' Present Perfect — refers to an action that happened in the past, but stresses the present result of that completed action e.g. l have finished my homework (and can therefore do something else now) Expressions of Piace place where — with ablative case e.g. Agricola in agro laborat (the farmer works in the field); pro templis orant (they pray in front of the shrines) place from which — with ablative case e.g. puella a turba festinat (the girl hurries away from the crowd); e ponto pueros vocamus (we call the boys out of the ocean) place to which — with accusative case e.g. portasne aquam ad viros (are you bringing water to the men?); in templum ambulat (she walks into the temple) Expressions of Cause ablative without a preposition e.g. dux curis aeger erat (the leader was sick with worry); multa gloriae cupiditate facit (he does many things out of a love of glory) preposition + accusative/ablative de or e>_<_ with the ablative e.g. dux ex vulnere aeger erat(the leader was sick from a wound); certis de caUSis agit (he is acting for definite reasons) ob or propter with the accusative e.g. laeti sumus propter pace (Iaeti Sumus propter pacem); ob iniuriam non pugnabit (because of his injury, he will not fight) causa/gratia with the genitive — the genitive precedes causa/gratia e.g. civitatis causa pugnate (fight for the sake of the state!); exempligratia unum dico (I mention one thing for example) ‘.JF€SSiORS of Time time when — with ablative case e.g. agricola prima luce laborat (the farmer works at first light); disceditne sexta hora? (is he leaving at the sixth hour?) time within which — with ablative case e.g. milites tribus annis discedent (the soldiers will depart within three years); tertio anno urbem Vincent (they will conquer the city during the third year) length of time — with accusative case e.g. tres annos manebamus (we stayed for three years); haec partem aetatis faciebat (he was doing this for part of his life) Accusatives of Extent & Degree extent of space —- with accusative case eg. arbores octo pedes altae erant (the trees were eight feet high); flumen iter abset (the river is a day’s march away) degree — with accusative case eg. te tantum amo (I love you so much); agricola multum in agro laborat (the farmer works a lot in the field) ...
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