Unformatted text preview: Straw man— To criticize or attack not someone’s actual argument or conclusion or position, but rather a misrepresentation of it. Ad hominem— When derogatory charges are made against the author or advocate of a position or argument, using those charges as reasons to claim that the position is false or the argument is not cogent . Guilt by association— To place an author or a position in a group of disreputable standing. By so doing, the audience is tempted to attribute the same disreputable characteristic to the author or position. Appeal to ignorance— To argue for a position by appealing to one’s lack of reasons for believing its denial. Appeal to popularity— Using the fact that many people believe or value or do something as a reason to think that it’s correct. Appeal to force— To use a threat as a reason for someone to adopt or change their beliefs, values, or intentions....
View Full Document
- Fall '11
- Logic, Conclusion, hominem—When derogatory charges, Straw man—To criticize