Informal Fallacies - Informal Fallacies a conclusion by...

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Informal Fallacies: Equivocation— Supporting a conclusion by shifting from one meaning of an ambiguous term to another. Slippery slope— To argue from the fact that one cannot determine the exact boundaries of a term’s extension, to the conclusion that a quite liberal use, or even any extension, of the term is appropriate. Appeal to false authority— When a statement is accepted because it is expressed by an “expert” claiming to have informed, privileged knowledge; however, one has reason to believe that the “expert” is unreliable, viz., that it is quite possible that they would express the statement even if it were not true . Begging the question— When one of the premises is either a disguised version of the conclusion or presupposes the truth of the conclusion. False analogy— When there is a relevant difference between two cases, such that what is claimed to be true of one case is no reason to believe it is true of the other.
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Unformatted text preview: Straw man— To criticize or attack not someone’s actual argument or conclusion or position, but rather a misrepresentation of it. Ad hominem— When derogatory charges are made against the author or advocate of a position or argument, using those charges as reasons to claim that the position is false or the argument is not cogent . Guilt by association— To place an author or a position in a group of disreputable standing. By so doing, the audience is tempted to attribute the same disreputable characteristic to the author or position. Appeal to ignorance— To argue for a position by appealing to one’s lack of reasons for believing its denial. Appeal to popularity— Using the fact that many people believe or value or do something as a reason to think that it’s correct. Appeal to force— To use a threat as a reason for someone to adopt or change their beliefs, values, or intentions....
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  • Fall '11
  • Possin
  • Logic, Conclusion, hominem—When derogatory charges, Straw man—To criticize

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