Modern European History Final Study Guide - Hist1000...

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Hist1000: Understanding Historical Change: Modern Europe Review Sheet Final: December 20, 2012, 12 pm Structure: 2 essays (chosen by me from the list below): 25 x 2 = 50 points; 2 primary source quotes (see ‘Assignments for all primary source documents): 2 x 10 = 20 points; 6 IDs: 6 x 5 = 30 points. Potential Essay questions : 1. Analyze the similarities and differences in the methods used by Cavour and Bismarck to bring about the unification of Italy and of Germany, respectively. SIMILARITIES: Uniting their countries around an existing monarchy – there were struggles; both occurred in 19 th century; both came from rich families; both rallied behind nationalism; both in the middle of the superpowers DIFFERENCES: Statesman Camillo Cavour made a significant impact to the political unification in Italy. He entered Italian troops into a conflict, the Crimean War. He used France to engineer a war with Austria in 1859 (War of Independence). He was able to get Lombardy and most of the papa states; relied on diplomacy; Risorgimento – movement led by Mazzini – needed aid against Austria; he was able to persuade Napoleon to join in; worked behind the scenes; had a lot of support; when France went to fight, they took French territory; would only go for the sake of being there; didn’t live to see the unification; entered troops into Caribbean War to show international presence (first part) – claimed land [Victor Emmanuel - monarch] Otto von Bismarck attempted political unification in Germany. He made a Blood & Iron speech. He wanted to take away the power that the Parliament was gaining. In doing so, he fulfilled the goals better than they did. However, he ignored the law when it suited him; more with warfare; wars to knock out other wars; considered the army a much more valuable tool than other means, such as diplomacy; was a much better leader than Cavour & more outspoken; Bismarck could also achieve unification without foreign assistance; outspoken against liberals; speeches; provoked war with France; wanted Alsace-Lorraine from France; much smaller German states into Prussia 2. Analyze the extent to which the economic and political ideals of Karl Marx were realized in post-revolutionary Russia in the period from 1917 to 1939. Many of Marx’s political and economic ideas affected Lenin and Stalin; started with feudalism before Lenin; wanted to initiate communism by abolishing property
& common means of production to socialize companies – wanted to apply communism using Marxist ideas; wanted to go from undeveloped; inspired the Bolshevik party; Lenin tried to industrialize but didn’t affect that much; just made everything communist; worked toward communism b/c he needed to industrialize and economy was important for Marxism Stalin – Five Year Plans to build up Soviet economy; parts of the economy went to the state which would redistribute; oil, electricity, steel – tried to make it more prosperous; free of greed and selfishness; take away property to make it equal; few rights came out of this {{Marxism - Poor to capitalism to a revolt}}

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