BIO301M Final Exam Study Guide

BIO301M Final Exam Study Guide - BIO301M Final Exam Study...

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BIO301M Final Exam Study Guide 1. Prokaryotic cells – a. Body plan: i. Semirigid, permeable cell wall usually surrounds the plasma membrane and helps a cell hold its shape and resist rupturing as internal fluid pressure increases ii. Capsule or slimy layer of polysaccharides, polypeptides, or both often encloses the wall; helps cells stick to surfaces and resist phagocytes iii. Many have more than one flagella that rotate like a propeller around the attachment site iv. Pili often project from cell wall that help cells adhere to surfaces b. Characteristics: i. No membrane-bound nucleus ii. Single chromosome iii. Cell wall in most species iv. Prokaryotic fission v. Metabolic diversity c. Metabolic diversity: i. Photoautotroph – make their own food by a photosynthetic pathway that uses sunlight and CO 2 ii. Chemoautotroph – self-feeders that use CO 2 and get energy by oxidizing organic compounds or inorganic ones iii. Chemoheterotroph – pirate energy and carbon from a living host d. Prokaryotic fission: i. A parent cell replicates its DNA molecule, which is then separated by a new plasma membrane ii. An orderly deposition of membrane and wall material at the midsection cuts the cell in two – each with a DNA molecule iii. Only bacteria and Archaea reproduce by this cell division mechanism e. Bacteria: smallest living organisms; most common and diverse prokaryotic cells, including i. Cyanobacteria ii. Gram-positive bacteria iii. Proteobacteria iv. Chlamydias v. Spirochetes
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f. Archaea: i. Methanogens – anaerobic ii. Halophiles – salt; anaerobic and aerobic iii. Thermophiles – hot areas; anaerobic 2. Sedimentary cycles – phosphorous and other solid nutrients that have no gaseous form a. Phosphorous is part of phospholipids and all nucleotides b. It’s the most prevalent limiting factor in ecosystems c. Main reservoir is Earth’s crust; no gaseous phase d. Human effects i. In tropical countries, clearing lands for agriculture may deplete phosphorous-poor soils ii. In developed countries, phosphorus runoff is causing eutrophication of waterways 3. Eubacteria – a. Cyanobacteria i. Photoautotrophs that help cycle carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and other key nutrients ii. Like plants, they contain chlorophyll a and b and release oxygen during photosynthesis iii. Find most in aquatic habitats and soil b. Gram-positive bacteria i. Gram staining tints their thick, multilayered walls purple ii. Most are chemoheterotrophs iii. Endospore: type of resting structure that encloses the bacterial chromosome and a bit of cytoplasm 1. Resists heat, irradiation, drying out, acids, disinfectants, and boiling water c. Proteobacteria i. Makes up largest, most diverse bacterial group ii. Gram-staining tints their wall pink, so they are known as Gram-negative bacteria iii. Most common strain of E.coli lives inside the mammalian gut iv. There are photosynthetic proteobacteria, but they don’t release oxygen and they don’t use chlorophylls 4. Prions – small proteins a. Linked with human diseases
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i. Kuru ii. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) b.
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