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Midterm Study Guide

Midterm Study Guide - History 251 Midterm Study Guide Fall...

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History 251 Midterm Study Guide Fall 2012 The midterm will be two essays, each worth 50% of your grade. The following questions are guide to first half of the course—the exam questions will be worded slightly differently. Each essay will need an introduction, body, and conclusion . Be sure that you supply relevant historical details/examples as well as pertinent references to your primary source readings . I. Early-Modern Afro Eurasia What did the states/empires/peoples of early Modern Afro-Eurasia have in common? How were they different? Name some of these states/empires. What did they have in common/different politically? Socio-economically? Culturally? The modern Afro-Eurasia empires include the Ming and Qing in China, Tokugawa in Japan, and the Islamic empires the, Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal. All of these empires have different ways in which they operate but many of the basics behind each empire are very similar. Through this essay these similarities and differences will be depicted. One of the basic similarities between all of these great empires is that they all were mainly agricultural states at this time. Many of the rich landowners all owned large farms which they cultivated and grew different goods on. All which needed large amounts of resources such as fertile land, seeds, plenty of sun light and water (irrigation canals). They also needed farmers and tools. The work back in the early 1500s was much more labor intensive because there was less technology as well as the hours “clocked” by workers controlled by the sun and the seasons. They did not have a schedule set in stone of any kind. In some of the states they had to use different types of farming such as Terrace and Qanat. Terrace was where they built steps into the sides of hills with little lips in ordered to make more land farmable and keep the water up on the hill. Qanat was an irrigation technique where underground tunnels were dug to keep water sources from evaporating. As time went on and more nomadic people came into these areas pastoralism (herding) became another source of income for these people. The other main similarity between all of these states is that everyone has some form of a market place, palace, and a place of worship, be it a church, mosque, or temple. Where ever you traveled in order to trade you had to enter the market place. The king or rulers were located in the palace and the religious worship had its own set up as well. For example the photos we looked at in class of the cities in India, and the other states, there was usually a square in the middle surrounded by these three main buildings. Be it they all have differences but the concept is the same wherever people visited. Some of the main differences you noticed amongst all these great powers were their religious beliefs. Such and the powers in the Middle East they followed the practices of Islam and in China and Japan you saw more Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism in the Indian area. Not to say that there was no overlap of religion, there was, but it was looked at as a problem in places.
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