Chapter 11 psych outline

Chapter 11 psych outline - Chapter 11 Personality...

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Chapter 11: Personality Development in Childhood and Adolescence o What is Personality Development? Questions of Personality Development Each individual’s development is the result of a wide range of unique influences – genes, parental practices, the social environment, and the individual’s own reaction. People who are able to withstand difficult upbringings possess a characteristic called resilience It is the capacity to survive and thrive in response to tough circumstances Personality Development refers to how the parts of personality and their organization grow and change throughout the lifespan Broad trends in motivational and emotional responsiveness is called personality temperament, which many believe to be the building blocks of traits Another way that developmental psychologists have examined personality growth is by dividing people into different groups based on their personality types or forms Dividing the Life Span Developmental stages: relatively fixed phases or units of development into which a person’s growth can be divided Research Designs in Developmental Studies Cross Sectional research designs are those in which children of tow ore more different ages are examined at a single point in time so as to compare and contrast their various personality characteristics Longitudinal research designs follow the same people across a period of time – sometimes over a few years or even decades – examining the growth and maturation of the individuals within the group o Do Infants have a Personality? The Infant’s Challenge The newborn brain and mind already possess substantial organization. At a minimum that mind is prepared for social contact Between six and ten weeks, the infant reliably produces a broad grin called the social smile, accompanied by cooing, both of which encourage parental care in return. Brief facial expressions of anger arise during the first two months and can be elicited toward the end of the first year in response to frustrations, such as removing a sucking object from an infant’s mouth.
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There is little evidence of much sense of self during the first year. Between fifteen and eighteen months, the child recognizes the image in the mirror as his own. When the infant loses sight of an object, it may believe that object has ceased to exist and stop looking for it. Infant Temperament The basic temperamental styles exhibited by the newborn will gradually differentia into recognizable adult personality traits Ex: infant who responds to a toy with agitated motor movements and beings to cry may be less happy and more shy growing up Infants vary among behavioral dimensions in motor, cognitive and emotional areas Attachment Patterns Attachment Theory: A theory proposed by John Bowlby that
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Chapter 11 psych outline - Chapter 11 Personality...

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