UNIT TWO NOTES World War I Drews – Hist 2112 – 1/30/2013 World War I The Great War – Great in regards to the great number of countries involved The War to End All Wars Woodrow Wilson and the World • Wanted to focus domestically – And he did focus domestically until 1916 – Isolationist foreign policy – Wilson had a great distaste for war • “America was too proud to fight” • Foreign meant “The Americas” – Monroe Doctrine/ Roosevelt Corollary • Do not mess with the Americas – Nicaragua, Haiti and Dominican Republic – Mexico • Victoriano Huerta seized power • He was a dictator • US didn’t like him US forced him into exile • Poor people felt the U. S. had betrayed the goals of the revolt • Huerta was actually helping poor people • Pancho Villa led rebel army attacking US interests • Remember him!!! • He attacked US businesses along the US border • Wilson sent in 12,000 troops • A big number of troops for that period in time • Purpose Find and stop Pancho Villa • One of the most important triggers in involving US in WWI • The European Crisis – Wilson as not able to avoid the gathering storm in Europe – Germany defeated France in 1871 war • Long standing hostility between the Prussian Empire (Germany) and France – Annexed French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine • Alsace and Lorraine spoke French, but mostly German customs – Created tensions between the two European powers – Germany wanted respect for its boundaries and wanted colonies to fuel its economy • And also wanted the Alsace and Lorraine territory back! • Prussia was greatly focused on Europe and saw their empire as being in Europe • Austria – Hungary greatly allied with Germany (Prussia)
• Nationalism Threatened Austria - Hungary – Sarajevo – Serbia • Serbs were concerned that the growing empire would take over them – Faced Independence movements – Serbian Assassinated Austrian Heir to Throne in Sarajevo • Assassinated Archduke Ferdinand • Austria – Hungary Declared War on Serbia – Serbia Allied with Russia – Russia Allied with France – France Allied with Great Britain – Austria-Hungary Allied with Germany – Germans Allied with Ottoman Turks against Russia – Chain Reaction as each ally starts to declare war on one another – Secret Treaties between Allies Guaranteed Selfish Gaines in Expected Wars with Neighbors • In addition to known treaties, a lot of secret treaties came about • Mobilization – Great Powers had practiced Mobilization drills using Railways. – Germany was Fastest in drills – Russia was Slowest in drills – Germany invaded neutral Belgium to attack France • Belgium was a neutral country • Took over Belgium – Expected to take out France quickly and add it all to its empire • Would then focus on Russia – Did Not Expect Resulting Stalemate in Trench Warfare • Trench warfare not much movement, everyone just kept shooting at each other •
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