Study Guide - Unit 4 Cells

These endospores can survive for years conjugation

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Unformatted text preview: ditions in their environment improve. These endospores can survive for YEARS! Conjugation: the process by which organisms exhange genetic material o Bacteria conjugate to spread genes throughout the population. • • • • • • • • • • • Group 1: Bacteria that use sunlight and CO2 to create energy are called photosynthesizers Group 2: Chemoautotrophs o Obtain energy by removing electrons from substances like NH3 (amonia) and H2S (hydrogen sulfide) o These are nitrogen fixers convert nitrogen into useful forms Group 3: Heterotrophs o Decomposers: consume dead organisms Pathogenic Bacteria o TB = Mycobacterium tuberculosis o Germ is airborne o Infects the lungs o Fever, chronic cough, night sweats, blood-tinged sputum Propionibacterium acnes bacteria that causes acne Most common way to get food poisoning is by undercooked meats o Diarrhea, vomiting & nausea Botulism Clostradium botulinum o Used for BOTOX in plastic surgery Biowarfare is the deliberate exposure of people to a bacteria or virus as a means of terrorism or warfare 1928 – Alexander Fleming isolated a toxin created by a fungus named penicilium and used it to kill bacteria. It is vital to use the full course of medication to prevent antibiotic-resistance Bacteria is also used in the production of food such as yogurt, milk and cheese. Viruses • 1892, Dmitri Ivanovski disease infected the plant • Martinus Beijerinck viruses, Latin word for “poison.” • In 1935, Wendell Stanley isolated crystals of tobacco mosaic virus • A virus is a nonliving particle made of proteins, nucleic acids, and sometimes lipids. • Viruses can reproduce only by infecting living cells • Viruses differ widely in terms of size and structure. • Most viruses are so small they can be seen only with the aid of a powerful electron microscope. • The protein coat surrounding a virus is called a capsid. • Most viruses infect only a very specific kind of cell. • • • Plant viruses infect plant cells; most animal viruses infect only certain related species of animals; viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages. Lytic Infection o A virus enters a bacterial cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst, or lyse Lysogenic Infection o Remains dormant, replicating the DNA, until environmental factors activate the virus • • • • • In humans, RNA viruses cause a wide range of infections, from relatively mild colds to severe cases of HIV. Certain kinds of cancer also begin with an infection by viral RNA Cold viruses attack with a very simple, fast-acting infection. o 8 hours from exposure before being ‘sick’ The deadly disease called acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by an RNA virus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). o HIV belongs to a group of RNA viruses that are called retroviruses. Viruses are not “alive” or considered living things...
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This note was uploaded on 05/24/2013 for the course SCIENCE Biology taught by Professor Amatucci,amanda during the Fall '12 term at Manalapan High.

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