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Unformatted text preview: ditions in their environment improve. These endospores can survive for
Conjugation: the process by which organisms exhange genetic material
o Bacteria conjugate to spread genes throughout the population. •
• Group 1: Bacteria that use sunlight and CO2 to create energy are called
Group 2: Chemoautotrophs
o Obtain energy by removing electrons from substances like NH3
(amonia) and H2S (hydrogen sulfide)
o These are nitrogen fixers convert nitrogen into useful forms
Group 3: Heterotrophs
o Decomposers: consume dead organisms
o TB = Mycobacterium tuberculosis
o Germ is airborne
o Infects the lungs
o Fever, chronic cough, night sweats, blood-tinged sputum
Propionibacterium acnes bacteria that causes acne
Most common way to get food poisoning is by undercooked meats
o Diarrhea, vomiting & nausea
Botulism Clostradium botulinum
o Used for BOTOX in plastic surgery
Biowarfare is the deliberate exposure of people to a bacteria or virus as a
means of terrorism or warfare
1928 – Alexander Fleming isolated a toxin created by a fungus named
penicilium and used it to kill bacteria.
It is vital to use the full course of medication to prevent antibiotic-resistance
Bacteria is also used in the production of food such as yogurt, milk and
cheese. Viruses • 1892, Dmitri Ivanovski disease infected the plant • Martinus Beijerinck viruses, Latin word for “poison.” • In 1935, Wendell Stanley isolated crystals of tobacco mosaic virus • A virus is a nonliving particle made of proteins, nucleic acids, and
sometimes lipids. • Viruses can reproduce only by infecting living cells • Viruses differ widely in terms of size and structure. • Most viruses are so small they can be seen only with the aid of a powerful
electron microscope. • The protein coat surrounding a virus is called a capsid. • Most viruses infect only a very specific kind of cell. •
• Plant viruses infect plant cells; most animal viruses infect only certain
related species of animals; viruses that infect bacteria are called
o A virus enters a bacterial cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the
cell to burst, or lyse
Lysogenic Infection o Remains dormant, replicating the DNA, until environmental factors activate the virus •
• In humans, RNA viruses cause a wide range of infections, from relatively
mild colds to severe cases of HIV.
Certain kinds of cancer also begin with an infection by viral RNA Cold viruses attack with a very simple, fast-acting infection.
o 8 hours from exposure before being ‘sick’
The deadly disease called acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is
caused by an RNA virus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
o HIV belongs to a group of RNA viruses that are called retroviruses.
Viruses are not “alive” or considered living things...
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