Aquinas1 - Summa Theologica The Summa Theologica(or the...

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Summa Theologica The Summa Theologica (or the Summa Theologiae or simply the Summa , written 1265 1274 ) is the most famous work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225 1274 ) although it was never finished. It was intended as a manual for beginners as a compilation of all of the main theological teachings of that time. It summarizes the reasonings for almost all points of Christian theology in the West, which, before the Protestant Reformation, subsisted solely in the Roman Catholic Church . The Summa's topics follow a cycle: the existence of God, God's creation, Man, Man's purpose, Christ, the Sacraments, and back to God. It is famous for its five arguments for the existence of God , the Quinquae viae (Latin: five ways ). Throughout his work, Aquinas cites Augustine, Aristotle, and other Christian, Jewish and even Muslim and ancient pagan scholars. The Summa Theologica is a more mature and structured version of Aquinas's earlier Summa Contra Gentiles . This earlier work was more apologetic, each article refuting a belief of a heresy . Notable points made by the Summa Theology is the greatest and most certain of all the sciences, since its source is from divine knowledge, which cannot be deceived, and because of the higher worth of its subject-matter, the sublimity of which transcends human reason. [5] When a man knows an effect, and knows that it has a cause, the natural desire of the intellect or mind is to understand the essence of that thing, natural because this understanding results from the perfection of the operation of the intellect or mind. [6] The existence of something and its essence are separate (that is, its being and the conception of being man has or can imagine of it [for example, a mountain of solid gold would have essence, since it can be imagined, but not existence, as it is not in the world]) in all things except for God, who is simple. [7] The existence of God , his total simplicity or lack of composition, his eternal nature ("eternal", in this case, means that he is altogether outside of time; time is held to be a part of the universe that God created), his knowledge, the way his will operates, and his power can all be proved by human reasoning alone. [8] All statements about God are either analogical or metaphorical ; one cannot say man is "good" in exactly the same sense as God, but rather that he imitates in some way the simple nature of God in being good, just or wise. [9] Unbelief is the greatest (meaning largest in scope) sin in the realm of morals. [10] The principles of Just War [11] and Natural Law . [12] The greatest happiness of all, the ultimate good, consists in the beatific vision . [13] Taking interest on loans is forbidden, because it is charging people twice for the same thing. [14] In and of itself, selling a thing for more or less than it is worth is unlawful (the just price theory). [15]
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The contemplative life is greater than the active life [16] , but greater still is the contemplative life that sometimes takes actions to call others to the contemplative life and give them the fruits of contemplation.
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