lecture8F06 - Lecture 8 Genetics Simple inherited patterns...

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Lecture 8: Genetics: Simple inherited patterns variation Describe the sex life of a pea plant . carpel; stamens; self-pollination; cross-pollination; true-breeding; hybridization List some of the heritable traits of pea plants studied by Mendel. flower color; seed shape; seed color; pod shape; pod color; stem length; flower position Mendel’s “Law of Segregation” tracking heritable traits for three generations; parental generation; F 1 generation; F 2 generation, segregation, allele, dominant, recessive, phenotype, genotype Probability multiplicative rule additive rule Mendel’s “ Law of Independent Assortment“ independent assortment of genes, independent assortment of chromosomes Other dominance relationships partial or independent dominance codominance Mendel in the 21st century Text Reading: Chapter 14, up to 14.2 You need to be able to explain the following to yourself and to me (on exams): Note: the slides not covered in Lecture 7 will be covered in upcoming lectures.
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Figure 14.1 Gregor Mendel and his garden peas
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Figure 14.2 Research Method Crossing Pea Plants ( Note: for genetic purposes we can often treat plants like animals, without worrying about alternation of generations ). 1 5 4 3 2 Removed stamens from purple flower Transferred sperm- bearing pollen from stamens of white flower to egg- bearing carpel of purple flower Parental generation (P) Pollinated carpel matured into pod Carpel (female) Stamens (male) Planted seeds from pod Examined offspring: all purple flowers First generation offspring (F 1 ) APPLICATION By crossing (mating) two true-breeding varieties of an organism, scientists can study patterns of inheritance. In this example, Mendel crossed pea plants that varied in flower color. TECHNIQUE TECHNIQUE When pollen from a white flower fertilizes eggs of a purple flower, the first-generation hybrids all have purple flowers. The result is the same for the reciprocal cross, the transfer of pollen from purple flowers to white flowers. TECHNIQUE RESULTS Peas normally self-fertilize - pollen (containing sperm) fertilizes an ovum from the same plant, or same flower in this case. Mendel manipulated flowers to ensure cross-fertilization (hybridization). The pea plant life cycle self-pollination cross-pollination true-breeding Plants that have selfed for several generations are true-breeding - no variation.
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Table 14.1 The seven variable characters of pea plants studied by Mendel. Ignore cross results for now. Traits of pea plants flower color flower position seed color seed shape pod shape pod color stem length
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Figure 14.3 When F 1 pea plants with purple flowers are allowed to self- pollinate, what flower color appears in the F 2 generation? P Generation
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lecture8F06 - Lecture 8 Genetics Simple inherited patterns...

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