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lecture13F06 - Lecture 13 Genetics Gene pools and...

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Lecture 13: Genetics: Gene pools and populations Population genetics: the mechanics (“engineering”) of evolution microevolution; population, agriculture, medical genetics Examples of genetic variation ; terms (gene pool; standing variation, mutation)s, examples, human genetic variation Describing variation frequencies (percentages), allele, genotype, and phenotype frequencies, normal curve Assigned Readings: Ch. 23; 23.1 - 23.3 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium random mating; equilibrium; conditions Genetic drift chance; allele frequency change Mutations missense, silent, insertions and deletions, frameshifts, deleterious, neutral, beneficial; allele tree
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A population is a group of individuals living in a particular area. Individuals in a population usually mate with other individuals from that population. Lakes in Michigan, www.egr.msu.edu Largemouth bass, a lake fish, www.inhs.uiuc.edu/inhsreports/mar- apr97/raib.gif Population genetics population microevolution agriculture medicine
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Fig. 23.3. One species, two popuations. The two populations can interbreed perfectly, but most matings are within a herd (population). Population genetics population microevolution agriculture medicine
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Figure 23.2 Individuals are selected; populations evolve. Grass genotypes tolerant of heavy-metal poisoning survive and reproduce. Population genetics population microevolution agriculture medicine
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Population genetics population microevolution agriculture medicine http://www.hort.purdue.e du/fruit/rep_pres/2002pri or/insidebackcover- tomatoes.jpg Each tomato variety is a distinct population with a unique genotype, kept distinct by controlled breeding.
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Figure 23.13 Mapping malaria and the sickle-cell allele (ignore malaria for now). Note how the frequency (percentage of the allele in the population) changes from place to place. Frequencies of the sickle-cell allele 0–2.5% 2.5–5.0% 5.0–7.5% 7.5–10.0% 10.0–12.5% >12.5% Distribution of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (a protozoan) Population genetics population microevolution agriculture medicine
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Similarity between different species. The eastern meadowlark ( Sturnella magna, left) and the western meadowlark ( Sturnella neglecta, right) have similar body shapes and colorations. Nevertheless, they are distinct biological species because their songs and other behaviors are different enough to prevent interbreeding should they meet in the wild. (a) Diversity within a species. As diverse as we may be in appearance, all humans belong to a single biological species ( Homo sapiens ), defined by our capacity to interbreed. (b) Fig. 23.1, Fig. 24.3. All life is this variable. The sum of all the alleles of all the genes in all the individuals in a population is called the gene pool . At any given time the gene pool has many old mutations ( standing variation ), plus new mutations are always occurring.
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