# Chapter-2 - Chapter 2 Two Kinds of Reasoning This chapter...

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Chapter 2 Two Kinds of Reasoning This chapter offers more detail on argument and logic, for those who want to emphasize those topics in their course, as does one of us. That author covers Chapter 2 and moves directly into the “formal logic chapters” of the book—Chapters 8-11. He then goes back and covers the informal logic chapters—Chapters 3-7. In this edition we emphasize deduction as the logic of demonstration, and induction as the logic of support. We also relativise the concept of inductive strength. No longer are arguments considered as simply strong or weak, but as comparatively or relatively strong or weak. An argument’s relative strength is said to depend on how much the premise raises the probability of the conclusion. This means that one argument for a contention might be much stronger than another, even though neither makes that contention very likely. Buying three tickets makes it three times more likely you’ll win the lottery than does buying one ticket; neither option makes it very likely you will win. If you prefer to characterize a strong argument simply as one whose premise makes the conclusion more likely than not, we’ve included language so you may do so easily and gracefully, even though we do not follow that policy in the book. We’ve also refined the idea that whether an argument is deductive or inductive depends a lot on what assumptions—unstated premises—are brought to bear on it. Those who cover diagramming will find that methodology covered in this chapter. Answers to Text Exercises Exercise 2-1 1. a. Premise; b. premise; c. conclusion 2. a. Premise; b. premise; c. conclusion 3. a. Conclusion; b. premise 4. a. Premise; b. premise; c. conclusion 5. a. Premise; b. conclusion; c. premise; d. premise Exercise 2-2 1. Premise: All Communists are Marxists. Conclusion: All Marxists are Communists. 2. Premise: The Lakers almost didn’t beat the Kings. Conclusion: They’ll never get past Dallas. 3. Premise: If the butler had done it, he could not have locked the screen door. Premise: The door was locked. Conclusion: The butler is in the clear. IM – 2 | 1

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4. Premise: That cat is used to dogs. Conclusion: Probably she won’t be upset if you bring home a new dog for a pet. 5. Premise: His mother’s daughter has only one brother. Conclusion: He isn't older than his mother’s daughter’s brother. 6. Premises: The state police have a weight limit, and Mr. Stooler is over it. Conclusion: Mr. Stooler will never make it into the state police. 7. Premise: Presbyterians are not fundamentalists. Premise: All born-again Christians are fundamentalists. Conclusion: No born-again Christians are Presbyterians. 8. Premise: Thork wastes his time watching daytime TV. Conclusion: Thork doesn’t have a thing to do.
• Spring '13
• Newman
• The Lottery, Conclusion, Inductive support

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