Chapter-3 - Chapter 3 Clear Thinking Critical Thinking and...

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Chapter 3 Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking and Clear Writing The material here is important, but it’s fun too. Students seem to like working with it and they seem to have very little trouble understanding it. This provides a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction that many of them need in order to have the confidence required to tackle more difficult material found elsewhere in the book. Professor Donald Henderson first pointed out how discussions of ambiguity can help students appreciate the value of critical-thinking skills before they’ve learned more complicated techniques. And it doesn’t hurt that it’s easier to get a cheap joke from this material than from nearly anything else you’ll ever teach. We hope you enjoy this as much as we do. Answers to Text Exercises Exercise 3-1 In order of decreasing vagueness: 1. (d), (e), (b), (c), (f), and (a). Compare (e) and (b). If Eli and Sarah made plans for the future, then they certainly discussed it. But just discussing it is more vague—they could do that with or without making plans. 2. (c), (e), (a), (b), (d) 3. (c), (b), (a), (d) 4. (c), (d), (e), (a), (b) 5. (b), (a), (e), (c), (d) Exercise 3-2 1. Answer b is more precise. 2. Answer b is more precise. 3. Answer a is more precise. 4. Answer a is more precise. 5. Answer a is more precise. 6. Answer b is more precise. 7. Answer b is more precise, but not by much. 8. Answer a is more precise. 9. Answer b is more precise, but only slightly so; neither are very precise. 10. Answer a is more precise. 11. Answer a is more precise 12. Answer b is more precise. 13. Answer a is more precise. IM – 3 | 1
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14. Answer b is more precise. 15. Answer b is more precise. Exercise 3-3 1. "Piano" is defined analytically. 2. "Decaffeinated" is defined by synonym. 3. "Successful philosophy major" is defined by example. 4. "Red planet" is defined by synonym. (This one is tricky because it looks like a definition by example. But there is only one red planet, so the phrase refers to exactly the same object as the word "Mars.") 5. "UV" is defined by synonym. 6. "Plains Indians" is defined by example. 7. "Data" is defined analytically. (Notice that this is a stipulative definition.) 8. "Chiaroscuro" is defined by synonym. 9. “Bifocals" is defined analytically. 10. "Red" is defined analytically. 11. "Significant other" is defined by example--several of them. 12. "Assessment" is defined by synonym. 13. "Blackout" is defined first by synonym, then by an amusing example. 14. "Pearl" is defined analytically. 15. "Bored person" is defined analytically. Exercise 3-4 1. Too imprecise. Sure, you can’t say exactly how much longer you want it cooked, but you can provide guidelines; for example, “Cook it until it isn’t pink.” 2. Precise enough. If it’s too precise, it isn’t a surprise anymore. 3. Precise enough, if only because we’ve heard it enough times to know what is meant.
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  • Spring '13
  • Newman
  • GIANTS, Fallacy of composition, Fallacy of division, Ms. Macleod

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