Fundamentals of Counseling Names to Know: Adler, Alfred - (1870–1937) An Austrian psychiatrist and one of Freud’s close associates. Adler broke away from Freud because of theoretical disagreements. He believed that social motives, rather than sexual drives, motivated people the most. He formed his own school of thought, which he called individual psychology. In Adler’s view, strivings for superiority drive people’s behavior. He thought mental disorders were characterized by extreme feelings of inferiority and a desire for superiority over others Bandura, Albert - (1925– ) A researcher who focused on observational learning, or modeling. Bandura showed that children learn behavior by watching others. He did a famous study involving Bobo dolls that demonstrated that children don’t need punishment or reward to learn Beck, Aaron - (1921– ) A developer of cognitive therapy, which is now used for disorders ranging from depression to panic attacks, addictions, and eating disorders. Beck initially received psychoanalytic training but became disenchanted with the approach of psychoanalysis. His cognitive approach to therapy emphasizes using rational thoughts to overcome fears rather than trying to uncover the unconscious meaning of those fears. In addition to writing several books, Beck has developed a questionnaire called the Beck Depression Inventory for assessing depression Binet, Alfred - (1857–1911) A developer of the Binet-Simon scale, along with his colleague Theodore Simon . Binet intended the test to predict school performance. He did not believe that it measured innate intelligence Ellis, Albert - (1913– ) An American psychologist who developed a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy known as rational-emotive behavioral therapy. Ellis was trained as a psychoanalyst but found the psychoanalytic approach too limiting. His rational-emotive behavioral therapy is based on the idea that self- defeating thoughts cause psychological problems Erikson, Erik - (1902–1994) A key contributor to the study of development across the life span. Erikson proposed a theory that people go through eight distinct stages of development. Erikson published his most influential book, Childhood and Society , in 1950, and his book Gandhi’s Truth , published in 1969, won both the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award. Freud, Sigmund - (1856–1939) An Austrian neurologist and pioneer in the field of psychoanalysis. Freud’s comprehensive theory of psychoanalysis sought to explain the structure of the human mind, human attitudes and behavior, mental disorders, and the origins of civilization. Freud’s ideas, particularly his emphasis on sexuality, were highly controversial in the repressive Victorian era in which he lived. He published a revolutionary book called The Interpretation of Dreams in 1900 and a more concise version of his theories called On Dreams in 1903. His ideas have had an enormous influence on Western thought, but they continue to be controversial today.
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