DSST Astronomy - History of Astronomy and Basic Concepts...

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History of Astronomy and Basic Concepts About the Earth In the development of _______________ thought, certain original and imaginative individuals began to make systematic observations of celestial objects to formulate theories and explain their behavior. : Astronomical. Ancient observers assumed the Earth was vast, immobile, and the center of the universe. Only when scientific procedures were developed did man's concept of the universe begin to change The _______________ must call upon all his resources of ingenuity and employ more clever devises than the most astute detective to solve the problems of his business. Explanation: Astronomer. Astronomy is the science of the universe, and the laboratory for this science is afar and untouchable, other than the observations of fallen meteorites. The first significant development of astronomy as a science took place in ancient _____________. Explanation: Greece. China, India, Mesopotamia, and Egypt had also made celestial observations, even before the Greeks. But the Greeks were the ones who explored a reservoir of ideas and inspirations, and carried out experiments and observations that contributed to the development of astronomy as a science . The earliest Greek scientists were the ______________, who lived in what is now Asia Minor. Explanation: Ionians . The foremost astronomers of the Ionians were Thales and Anaximander. Thales introduced the concept of geometry and surveying. Anaximander may have been the first to speculate on the relative distances of the sun, moon, and planets. _________________ was originally an Ionian in belief, but later founded a school of thought of his own regarding the shape of the planets. Pythagoras. Pythagoras pictured a series of concentric spheres in which each of the seven moving objects, the planets, the sun and the moon, was carried by a separate sphere from the one that carried the stars, so that the motions of the planets resulted from independent rotations of the different spheres about the Earth. A member of the Pythagorean school, ______________ was the first to introduce the concept that the Earth is in motion. Explanation: Philolaus . His concept proved to be erroneous in that he believed that there were two earths and that they each revolved equidistant from a central fire. However, he had set the "moving earth" concept in motion. One of the most famous of the Greek philosophers was ________________. Explanation: Aristotle. He wrote encyclopedic treatises on nearly every field of human endeavor during his time. Unfortunately, his expositions in astronomy were less sound than some of his other work. The greatest of the Greek accomplishments in the fields of physics and astronomy came post-Aristotle.
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The shape of the _________ in the sky depends simply on how much of its daylight hemisphere is turned to our view. Detailed Explanation: Moon. The phases of the moon and of eclipses are the results of illumination by sunlight. The moon itself is not luminous (it does not emit its own light). Below is a diagram of the phases of the moon; take a minute to note the position of the moon relative to the earth and the sun for the various phases:
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