Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Study perception, thinking, learning, cognition, emotions and motivations, personality, abnormal behavior, interactions between individuals, and interactions with the environment • Both humans and other animals • Problems with the science of psychology – particular in areas of classification and labeling o Often problems get categorized into one area and the problem is Multi-symptomatic Rene DesCartes – French philosopher • Believed in the function of the human body as intragal part of psychology • Mind and body interact although processes are different from each other • INTERACTIVE DUALISM – belief in the understanding of inner workings of the mind and how it works with the body John Locke - brought philosophy to psychology • Founder of British empiricism • Believed he could make healthy babies anything he wished through conditioning British Empiricists including Locke– believed that we are born into the world with our minds empty like blank slates Wilhelm Wundt – taught at Leipzig, German physiologist and psychologist • Founded first laboratory for experimental psychology • Stressed scientific methods particularly through introspection Edward Titchener – responsible for the refinement of introspection • INTROSPECTION = “to look within” INTROSPECTION = the process of examining what is happening in the mind and what one is thinking and feeling William James – American philosopher at Harvard University • First to open formal study of psychology in the classroom FUNTIONALISM – stressed the importance of interdependence among all behavior patterns and institutions within a social system to its long-term survival • New type of psychology – largely American • Most popular at the University of Chicago STRUCTURALISM – Edward Titchener • theory used to construct culturally interconnected signs to construct systems of relationships • considers the subject matter of psychology to be human consciousness and suggest that consciousness be analyzed in terms of sensations and feelings • involves the technique of introspection HUMANISM – leader - Carl Rodgers • Belief that the self should be the central concern of psychology BEHAVIORALISM - to explain animal and human behavior in terms of observable and measurable responses to the environmental stimuli – • Introduced by John B Watson
• Reaction against Functionalism o Psychology should focus on observable behavior, what a person actually does Reject internal feelings and state of mind Gestalt School of psychology – interprets phenomena as organized wholes rather than aggregates of distinct parts • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts, not the individual parts themselves • Focuses on the totality of perception • Developed from German psychologist Max Wertheimer B.F Skinner – Behaviorist • Concerned himself only with patterns of responses to rewards and stimuli o
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- Winter '12