CLEP Principles of Management - Management Influencing others to achieve a goal planning organizing leading and controlling Planning identifies

CLEP Principles of Management - Management Influencing...

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Management – Influencing others to achieve a goal, planning, organizing, leading and controlling Planning – identifies direction and purpose Organizing - defining relationships among employees Leading – motivating employees to attain common goal Controlling – analyzing performance and making adjustments Plans – practical and require action (means to achieve goals and objectives) Goals – statements of desired results Objectives – intended outcomes SMART – specific, measuarable, achievable, relevant, and time-frame Standing Plans – policies and procedures
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SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT (oldest approach to management - was initially associated with Taylor, then later Gantt and Gilbreth) An important aspect of scientific management is finding the most efficient way to do a job through scientific analysis. Scientific Management is different from many other approaches as focuses primarily on the physical work instead of higher-level mgmt. The first principle of Scientific Management is scientific study of the work involved. "Scientific study" of the work, involves studying and observing the work to determine the most efficient way to accomplish it. The second principle of Scientific Management is selecting the workers in a scientific manner for the kind of work to be done. Instead of allowing workers to select their own work, the workers are selected by management for the work to be done. The third principles of Scientific Management is train the workers in the most efficient methods for doing their work, and give them incentives for producing efficiently. The fourth principle of Scientific Management is dividing the work between managers and workers Managers would determine the best way to do the work and would then tell the workers exactly what to do. Frederick Winslow Taylor (father of Scientific Management) put forward the idea that workers are motivated mainly by pay. His Scientific Management focused on the bottom of the organization, the manual work itself. His Theory argued the following: Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task. Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay. As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximize their productivity. Taylor’s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs. The most notably advocate was Henry Ford who used them to design the first ever production line, making Ford cars. This was the start of the era of mass production.
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  • Winter '12
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  • Management, scientific management

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