lecture22F06

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By the end of this lecture you should be able to… Describe the basic physical principles underlying cellular bioenergetics. Concepts and terms: potential and kinetic energy, first and second laws of thermodynamics, free energy Discuss the role of ATP as an energy ‘carrier’ in cells. Concepts and terms: nucleotide, ribose, phosphate groups, hydrolysis. Describe the function of enzymes as biological catalysts. Concepts and terms: active site, substrate, product, activation energy Discuss enzyme kinetics. Concepts and terms : V max , K m Describe enzyme regulation. Concepts and terms: competitive and noncompetitive inhibition, allosteric regulation, feedback inhibition Thermodynamics and Metabolism Assigned reading: Chapter 8 in the text book; An Introduction to Metabolism .
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Metabolism- Catabolic pathways – breakdown processes Anabolic pathways – constructive pathways
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Organisms transform energy… The first law of thermodynamics : the energy of the universe is constant; energy can be transferred and transformed, but can neither be
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Unformatted text preview: created or destroyed. Conservation of energy. The second law of thermodynamics : every energy transformation increase the entropy (disorder or randomness) of the universe. Types of energy Kinetic energy Potential energy The energy available to do work in a cell is called free energy. G (free energy) = H (total energy) T (absolute T) S (entropy) For a reaction to occur spontaneously, H must decrease, S must increase, or both must occur. Spontaneous reaction have negative free energy. G = G final G initial spontaneous reactions proceed if the change in free energy is negative. At equilibrium G = 0. Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O > 6CO 2 + 6H 2 G = -686 kcal/mol; an exergonic reaction. Exergonic versus endergonic reactions. Some factors that affect the rate of enzyme catalyzed react substrate concentration temperature pH http://ntri.tamuk.edu/cell/allosteric.html...
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