16.Influenza - Influenza 1918 Spanish Flu(H1N1 An unusually...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Influenza Page 1 Influenza 1918 “Spanish Flu” (H1N1) • An unusually Virulent Strain of Influenza Most Influenza induces the greatest Mortality in Children under 10 and Adults over 60 (i.e. Those with Sub-Par Immune Systems). Spanish Flu induced the greatest Mortality in Adults 20 to 30 (i.e. Those with Fully-Functional Immune Systems). Current Thinking is that Spanish Flu may have initiated a Hyper-Immune Response involving an unregulated Inflammatory Response. • Approximately 55 Million Deaths Worldwide - 500,000 Deaths in the US That was five Times greater than US Casualties in WWI San Francisco ʼ s Mortality Rates were Typical: 3,500 died out of a Total Population of 350,000.That ʼ s 3,500 died, not 3,500 were infected. 1997-2007 Avian Influenza (H5N1) • In May 1997 Influenza A H5N1 was isolated from a Hong Kong Child Fifteen more Cases were discovered (4 Died). Hong Kong took the drastic but effective Step of killing all Chickens and Ducks in the Special Administrative Region. The Number of Cases may have been considerably larger. Patients with milder Symptoms may not have sought Medical Help. From late 2003 through early 2004 more than 100,000 Domestic Birds were killed by Avian Flu before it was thought to be brought under Control But by mid-2004 Outbreaks occurred in Domestic Fowl in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos and Malaysia. Bird-to-Human Transmission continues In Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia About half of these People have died from Avian Flu. It ʼ s a nasty little Beast. • H5N1 doesn ʼ t (yet) seem to be Transmissible from Human to Human 2009 Swine Influenza (H1N1) • First Cases were in March and April 2009 (Mexico and US) The new Virus Stain emerged as a Result of the Intermixing of Swine Flu Strains in Eurasian Pigs, then North American Pigs and then the Transmission of this new Strain to Workers at Industrialized Pig Farms. 2009-2013 Influenza Strains are a mix of H3N2 and H1N1 Strains • H1N1 could still become a very serious Pandemic - H5N1 may eventually become a heinous Pandemic
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Influenza Page 2 Causative Agent • Influenza Virus - Orthomyxovirus ( Baltimore Class V Virus ) - Enveloped Virus containing a Segmented, Negative Sense RNA Genome - Usually Spherical Morphology (about 100 nm Diameter) - Influenza is extremely sensitive to Acid, Heat, and Drying Transmission of Influenza basically requires that the Virus go from Mucous to Mucous, or from Mucous to Droplet to Mucous. The Fact that Transmission of Influenza occurs so readily is, well, disgusting. • Influenza Strains - Type A (The Most Common; Many Species, including Humans) - Type B (Humans only) - Type C (Humans [mostly Children] and other Primates) • WHO Influenza Nomenclature 1. Type (Type A, Type B, or Type C) 4. Laboratory (Strain) Number 2. Animal Host (if Non-human) 5. Isolation Year 3. Geographical Origin 6. Antigenic Description (Type A only) Current Strains of Influenza are a Mix of Drifted H3N2 and H1N1 A/Singapore/l/57 H2N2 A/Hong Kong/1/68 H3N2 A/Ft. Dix/1/76 H1N1 A/Avian/Hong Kong/1/97 H5N1 Animal Reservoir • Wild Birds seem to be the Natural Host for Type A Influenza
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern