All these proteins bind or avach to drugs or their

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Unformatted text preview: ss the current genetic condition of the specific tissue being tested and has no relevance outside of the individual. Carlson 17 Heritable gene=c varia=on Varia=on in soma=c =ssue •  Germline varia=on can produce pharmacogenomic effects through changes in the genes, and therefore the proteins, involved with human disease and drug response. •  These proteins are: –  Metabolic enzymes, proteins that chemically transform drugs within the body so that they can be safely processed; –  Membrane transporters, proteins involved in moving drugs across =ssues and into or out of cells; and –  Cell receptors, proteins that bind to a specific factor such as a neurotransmiVer, hormone, or drug and ini=ate a cellular response. •  All these proteins bind or aVach to drugs or their metabolic products. •  Varia=on in drug response can arise from either a change: –  Structure of the protein, increasing or decreasing the ability to bind to the drug –  Amount of protein available to bind to the drug 19 •  Gene=c varia=on can also be acquired throughout a person’s life=me through spontaneous muta=ons in individual cells, which are then passed on to daughter cells. •  These types of muta=ons tend to build up over =me, and when muta=ons occur in certain types of genes, e.g., oncogenes or tumor- suppressor genes, cancer can result. •  These cells are gene=cally dis=nct from normal body =ssue. •  The applica=on of pharmacogenomics to cancer drug therapy involves tailoring therapy to the specific type of gene=cally defined cancer to achieve the greatest effica...
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