Carlson Handout - Agenda Pharmacogenomics and Personalized...

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4/22/13 1 Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine Josh Carlson, PhD Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research and Policy Program School of Pharmacy University of Washington Seattle, WA Agenda Pharmacogenomics’(PGx)’overview’ How’pharmacogenomics’is’used’clinically’ Types’of’genomic’varia=on’ Example’ Background:’Pharmacogenomics Humans’are’around’99.6%’gene=cally’iden=cal’to’one’another.’ In’the’0.4%’of’the’genome’that’diFers’are’gene=c’features’that’aFect’our’ suscep=bility’to’disease’or’response’to’drugs.’ It’has’long’been’known’that’the’same’drug’at’the’same’dose’can’produce’ a’diFerent’response’in’diFerent’pa=ents.’ Pharmacogenomics’is’the’study’of’how’an’individual's’gene=c’make’up’ aFects’the’body's’response’to’drugs.’ Drug’efficacy’ Safety’ Pharmacogenomics’combines’tradi=onal’pharmaceu=cal’sciences’such’as’ biochemistry’with’annotated’knowledge’of’genes,’proteins,’and’single’ nucleo=de’polymorphisms’ Genomics The use of gene5c informa5on to improve healthcare Genomics Disease genetics Pharmacogenomics Gene-Drug effect Individualized drug therapy Disease etiology Disease risk New drug targets Prevention Efficacy Side effects
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4/22/13 2 PGx’Timeline Carlson’ 5’ PGx’Timeline Carlson’ 6’ Pharmacogene=cs’and’pharmacogenomics’ in’publica=ons’in’PUBMED Carlson’ 7’ Background:’Pharmacogenomics Doctors’and’pa=ents’need’beVer’tools’for’selec=ng’ treatments.’ Es=mated’ADR-related’hospitaliza=ons’in’the’USA:’ ~6%’of’all’new’hospital’admissions’ ~1,000,000’admissions’per’year’ ~50,000’to’100,000’deaths’each’year’ Es=mated’direct’US’costs’of’adverse’drug’reac=ons:’ $’15’billion/year’ To Err Is Human. Building a Safer Health System. Commit ee on Quality of Health Care in America. Institute of Medicine Report. Kohn et al. 1999, National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. Pirmohamed et al. Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: prospective analysis of 18820 patients
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4/22/13 3 Background:’Pharmacogenomics Freuh, F. Accelerating Anticancer Agent Development Accelerating Anticancer Agent Development and Validation Workshop and Validation Workshop. Bethesda, MD. May 17, 2006 The average response rate to drug therapy is poor More than 90% of drugs only work on 30 – 50% of patients - Allen Roses, GlaxoSmithKline What’are’the’consequences’of’a’ lack’of’response’to’drugs? No’beneFt’for’pa=ent’ Unnecessary’exposure’to’drugs à Adverse’drug’ reac=ons’
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Carlson Handout - Agenda Pharmacogenomics and Personalized...

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