SOC0005_Week04

SOC0005_Week04 - SOC 0005 - Week 4 Turner Chapters 6, 14...

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Page 1 BABONES 2006 SOC 0005 - Week 4 Turner Chapters 6, 14 Salvatore J. Babones Department of Sociology University of Pittsburgh Copyright 2007
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Page 2 BABONES 2006 Turner Chapter 6 - Social Structure
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Page 3 BABONES 2006 SOCIAL STRUCTURE IS COMPOSED OF A WEB OF INTERCONNECTED SOCIAL POSITIONS • People occupy positions in a social structure (called STATUSES) Statuses are associated with behavioral norms (called ROLES) • Every person in society has a STATUS SET • Every status in society has a ROLE SET
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Page 4 BABONES 2006 ALL PEOPLE OCCUPY MULTIPLE STATUSES IN SOCIETY • A STATUS SET is the collection of statuses held by an individual We all hold many statuses at the same time – For example, all of you are students and children (of parents) Most of you are also employees, friends, boyfriends/girlfriends, etc. • STATUS INCONSISTENCY occurs when people hold statuses that are not ordinarily found in the same person – For example, ordinarily we expect students to be poor A young student CEO of a technology startup holds inconsistent statuses – Status inconsistency is often exhibited in lottery winners, sports stars, celebrities, etc. An growing problem of status inconsistency is that of parent and soldier
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Page 5 BABONES 2006 EVERY STATUS IN SOCIETY IS ASSOCIATED WITH A SET OF ROLES • A ROLE is a set of behavioral norms governing the behavior of people in one status towards people of another status Students play one role vis-à-vis other students – Students play a different role vis-à-vis faculty A ROLE SET is the collection of roles associated with a status • Every status in society is associated with multiple roles
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Page 6 BABONES 2006 ROLE SETS ARE ATTACHED TO THE STATUS, NOT TO THE PERSON! • All “professors” (STATUS) are supposed to follow prescribed behavioral norms (ROLES) when interacting with “students” (STATUS) It doesn’t matter who the professor or the student is - only their statuses matter • In cases where statuses overlap, one status may DOMINATE another, or STATUS SWITCHING may occur
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Page 7 BABONES 2006 SOCIETIES HAVE DEFINITE CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS OF THE ROLE SET ASSOCIATED WITH THE STATUS OF BEING A CHILD • Expectations for children’s roles differ widely across countries • As with all of culture (Chapter 5), role set norms differ systematically by level of national development, with the US often an outlier Child Roles United States Turkey Brazil Finland Be Independent 61% 15% 20% 58% Work Hard 61% 74% 47% 12% Be Responsible 72% 63% 65% 86% Show Tolerance 80% 63% 59% 83% Save Money 23% 29% 39% 23% Be Religious 52% 47% 57% 16% Sacrifice for Others 39% 22% 32% 21% Be Obedient 32% 42% 59% 30% Source: World Values Survey
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Page 8 BABONES 2006 ROLE STRAIN AND ROLE CONFLICT CAN BOTH LEAD TO HIGH LEVELS OF PERSONAL DISTRESS • ROLE STRAIN occurs when individuals have difficulty simultaneously fulfilling all of the behavioral expectations of their status’ role-set The status of “student” may demand eighteen credits, 10 hours’ work-study, and partying
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SOC0005_Week04 - SOC 0005 - Week 4 Turner Chapters 6, 14...

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