SOC0005_Week12

SOC0005_Week12 - SOC 0005 - Week 12 Turner Chapter 24 &...

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Page 1 SOC 0005 - Week 12 Salvatore J. Babones Department of Sociology University of Pittsburgh Copyright 2007
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Page 2 Turner Chapter 24 - Globalization
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Page 3 THE TERM “GLOBALIZATION” MEANS DIFFERENT THINGS IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS • Turner defines GLOBALIZATION as “the process whereby most nations of the world are connected via communication and transportation” The term however was first defined here at the University of Pittsburgh by sociologist Roland Robertson as – “the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole” Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (1992) • Today we generally recognize three distinct kinds of globalization: – Cultural – Political – Economic
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Page 4 CULTURAL HOMOGENIZATION IS THE MOST VISIBLE FACE OF GLOBALIZATION • CULTURAL globalization refers to the emergence of common systems of symbols and uniform behavioral norms across much of the world Cultural globalization has been studied under a wide variety of names . .. – Westernization - Huntington Americanization - Wallerstein – McDonaldization - Ritzer The cultural hegemony of the English language and Anglo-American cultural products is near-complete
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Page 5 A POLITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE IS ALSO BECOMING A REALITY • These new global governance structures are largely undemocratic OECD – WTO IMF – IBRD BIS – IASB NGOs are gaining increasing power to set the global agenda The only quasi-democratic global governance organization, the UN General Assembly, has largely been sidestepped in this process (viz. John Bolton)
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Page 6 ECONOMIC INTEGRATION IS PERHAPS THE ULTIMATE DRIVER OF PROCESSES OF GLOBALIZATION • Economic integration is itself multifaceted Trade flows – Investment flows Financial flows – Corporate interlocks The rise of multinational firms • Trade globalization is the most commonly used measure of economic integration – Trade globalization is: (Imports + Exports) / (Gross National Income) Data are available for most countries – Trade globalization loosely represents the number of a jobs in a country that depend on contact with the outside world
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Page 7 TRADE GLOBALIZATION ENTERED HISTORICALLY NEW TERRITORY IN THE MID 1970s (CHASE-DUNN ET AL 2000) Average Openness Trade Globalization 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895 1905 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 Year
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Page 8 TRADE GLOBALIZATION HAS INCREASED DRAMATICALLY IN THE US SINCE 1960 Trade Globalization, United States (World Bank data) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Year
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Page 9 TRENDS IN EXPORTING COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN EVEN STRONGER Trade Globalization, China (World Bank data) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Year
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Page 10 WE USUALLY DATE THE “AGE OF GLOBALIZATION” AS STARTING IN 1980 • Trade globalization first started to boom in the fifteenth century
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course SOC 0005 taught by Professor Babones during the Spring '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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SOC0005_Week12 - SOC 0005 - Week 12 Turner Chapter 24 &...

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