American History Study Guide # 7Christianne Johnson Identifications:1.John brown’s raid on Harpers Ferrya.A militant abolitionist, John Brown believed that slavery must be overthrown by force. b.Who hoped to seize the town's federal arsenal and initiate a full-scale rebellion against slavery by distributing its weapons to local slaves.c.In 1859, he led the unsuccessful Harpers Ferryraidagainst the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia, hoping to spark a local slave rebellion. d.Most notably Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow—publicly supported Brown's attempt to end slavery.e.Shortly after his execution, as sectional tension between the North and South increased, Brown became a martyr for the cause of abolitionism. 2.William H. Seward and irrepressible conflicta.Seward saw the slavery issue as "an irrepressible conflict" between the North and South. b.He believed the issue of extending slavery into the territories was not negotiable because slavery was prohibited by "a higher law than the Constitution." c.He opposed the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Lecompton Constitution, and the Dred Scott decision. 3.Popular Sovereignty a.Promised to ease the slavery issue out of national politics by allowing each territory to decide the question for itself 4.Daniel Webstera.With the Union in danger of a civil war over slavery, Webster, against considerable public hostility in the North, backed Clay's compromise efforts. b.He spoke in favor of compromise, c.When Millard Fillmore became president after Taylor's death in 1850, Webster was again appointed secretary of state.d.Denied the Whig nomination for president in 1852 in favor of another military hero, Gen. Winfield Scott5.Henry Claya.Omnibus Bill was compromise of 1850b.Compromise of 1850 b.i.Attempt to reconcile Northern and Southern interests in the years before the Civil War.b.ii.California was entered as a free state.b.iii.New Mexico and Utah were each allowed to use popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery.b.iv.The Republic of Texas gave up lands that it claimed in present day New Mexico and received $10 million to pay its debt to Mexicob.v.The slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia.b.vi.The Fugitive Slave Act made any federal official who did not arrest a runaway slave liable to pay a fine. This was the most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850 and caused many abolitionists to increase their efforts against slavery.6.Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
a.Said that Northerners were constitutionally required to assist slave owners in recapturing runaway slaves.b.The law infuriated many Northerners, mainly because they believed such a mandate violated their liberty. c.Of lesser concern was the fear that legally freed African Americans living in the North could be forced into Southern slavery without any recourse.