ANT 302 Final Exam Study Guide

ANT 302 Final Exam Study Guide - ANT 302 Final Exam Study...

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ANT 302 Final Exam Study Guide 1. Power – ability to exercise one’s will over another o A relationship of domination and subordination 2. First Face of Power – direct coercion through the use or threat of force o “A” uses force or threat of force to get “B” to do what “A” wants o Authoritarian approach to social control o Involves physical coercion, armed forces, punishment, incarceration, even death o Fear of consequences can result in self-disciplining and submission 3. Second Face of Power – setting the rules of the game o “A” creates the conditions under which “B” has no other choice but do what “A” wants o More complex than the first o Society is structured in ways that reproduce social hierarchies o “Playing field” is uneven o Educational Institutions Students are subject to the institutional authority of the university (ex. Majors, credits, tuition, grades, rules, and regulations) Authority is reproduced in classroom between professor and student Layout and technology reinforce authority o Other realms where second face of power functions (integrative) Economic – class, access to work, the workplace State – access to citizenship rights Gender – feminization of poverty Race – racial inequality has deep structural roots 4. Third Face of Power – shaping perceptions and preferences so that those with less power accept societal conditions even though they are not equitable o “A” shapes the way “B” thinks so that “B” may not feel he is acting against his own interest o Most complex of all o Subject to constant debate and inquiry in the social sciences o Persuasion – “winning hearts and minds”
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o Dominating groups gain consent of subordinated groups 5. Structural inequality – institutional, systemic, political, economic aspects of society are structured to reinforce inequality 6. Structural racism – less about individuals and intent, more about broad social behaviors 7. Ideology – o “they don’t know it, but they’re doing it” – Karl Marx, Capitalism o More than a system of ideas o Organizes human consciousness o Embodied in collective modes of living o Shapes rules of conduct and moral behavior o Normalized and naturalized o Popular belief or “common sense” 8. Hegemony – o Antonio Gramsci (1891 – 1937): Italian social theorist in the Marxist tradition o A leader of the communist party and imprisoned by Mussolini o Third face = hegemony o Organization of consent through ideological and political forces o Unification of different social interests/forces/sectors o Involves building a system of broad alliances o Consumerist society 9. Resistance – a response to conditions of inequality by subordination groups that challenges dominant group’s privileged position of power and authority o Direct response to inequality that challenges the legitimacy of power holders
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ANT 302 Final Exam Study Guide - ANT 302 Final Exam Study...

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