eutrophicationmurray

eutrophicationmurray - EUTROPHICATION, etc. READINGS:...

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EUTROPHICATION, etc. READINGS: FREEMAN, 2005 Chapter 54 Pages 1261-1262
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EUTROPHICATION Eutrophication is the accumulation of nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. It alters the dynamics of a number of plant, animal and bacterial populations; thus, bringing about changes in community structure. It is a form of water pollution and like all other forms of pollution is the result of human activities influencing ecological cycles.
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POLLUTION Pollution is the contamination of the environment by humans adding any substance or energy. Heavy metals, gases, oil, sewage, noise, heat, radiation and pesticides are common pollutants that can affect the environment adversely. A pollutant is any matter or energy introduced by human activities that produces harmful effects on resident populations thus altering community structure.
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Pollutants, Population Dynamics and Community Structure Pollutants may be toxic (effect survival and/or reproduction of individuals) thus directly affect population dynamics. 1. Radioactive Atoms (Radioisotopes) ….. I 131 , St 90 , etc. 2. Heavy Metals ….. Cu, Hg, Pb, etc. 3. Man-made Organic Molecules ….. DDT, PCB’s, Dioxin, 2-4-5 T, etc.
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Pollutants, Population Dynamics and Community Structure Pollutants may alter the abiotic environment thus indirectly affect population dynamics 1. Increases in Atmospheric Gases …ozone (smog, uv radiation) …sulfur dioxide (acid rain) …CO 2 (greenhouse effect) …ammonia/nitrates (nitrogen deposition) 2. Waste Heat (thermal pollution) 3. Nutrient Enrichment (eutrophication)
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Trophic Transfer, Biological Magnification and Toxic Substances I The movement on compounds (molecules) through trophic levels is called trophic transfer. Toxic substances, like nutrients, can be transferred through trophic levels. Substances that can not be metabolized are particularly suitable for trophic transfer, as are radioactive atoms.
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Trophic Transfer, Biological Magnification and Toxic Substances II Biological magnification is the increase in concentration of a substance in successive members of a food chain. Toxic substances may accumulate in members of higher trophic levels as a result of biomagnification. Two classic examples of substance that are biomagnified are 1) Strontium 90 and 2) DDT.
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Trophic Transfer and Biological Magnification of Strontium 90 I St 90 is a radioactive material with a 1/2 life of 28.1 years. Half life is a measure of how long it will take for the mass of the substance to decrease over time. For example, a kilogram of a radioactive compound with a 1/2 life of 10 years will weigh one half of a kilogram is left to sit from 1996 to 2006. By 2016, it will weigh one quarter of a kilogram.
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Magnification of Strontium 90 I St 90 is a radioactive material with a 1/2 life of 28.1 years. Half life is a
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eutrophicationmurray - EUTROPHICATION, etc. READINGS:...

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