noteswap notes exam 1

noteswap notes exam 1 - World is a global society Travel of...

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World is a global society Travel of citizens to foreign countries, travel of foreign visitors to this country Immigration Stowaway of organisms in/on imported products Risk of: non-native (exotic) disease organisms or reintroduction of eradicated ones Four major problems in underdeveloped countries: “poverty” High population Pollution Lack of sanitation Lack of health and infrastructure Parasites in the USA Giardia lamblia Cryptosporidium parvum Toxoplasma gondii Enterobius vermicularis (pinworms) Hookworms: Necator americanus and Ancylostoma dvodemale New diseases are arising: SARS Cyclospora cayantensis Avian influenze West Nile virus Emergence of new disease Ex.: Cyclospora cayantensis (1996), SARS (2003), Avian Influenza (2004), West Nile Effects of parasitic infections: Overt disease Tissue damage Insidious effects DALY: Disease Associated Lost Years o The loss of energy, creativity, productivity of people as a result of their parasite burdens Terminology associated with tissue damage (on SB) Hyperplasia : cell proliferation caused by accelerating cell division (cell growth responds to normal cell growth controls) Hypertrophy : increase in cell size (organ size) without and increase in cell numbers Metaplasia : the conversion of one type of tissue into another and is reversible Neoplasia : tissue starts to grow abnormally and does not respond to normal cell growth controls . It is not an inflammatory response and is not required for tissue repair o Malignant neoplasm: invasive and/or metastatic o Benign neoplasm: remains localized with no invasion of adjacent tissues
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Insidious effects of parasites Malnutrition Anemia o Malaise and lethargy Fever Stunted growth, physically and mentally Parasite terminology Zoonosis : infectious agent that can be transmitted from animals to man o Sylvan cycle : in wild animals o Urban (domestic) cycle : domestic animals and rats Symbiosis : “living together” two organisms living in close association for long periods of time o Mutualism: both benefits o Commensalisms: one benefits and other is unaffected o Parasitism: one benefits and other (host) is harmed but not usually killed Ectoparasites: on host; external Endoparasites: in host; internal o Facultative: not normally parasitic; opportunists o Obligate: all or part of life cycle must be a parasitic relationship o Incidental: exotic; in/on host of different species May not survive May not be able to establish infection May not be able to complete life cycle May be highly pathogenic o Permanent: entire existence in/on host Parasitoid: in insects only: immature stages feed on host (fatal) Host categories Definitive : harbors sexual (mature) stages; sexual reproduction occurs in this host Intermediate : required in life cycle of parasite; parasite undergoes development in host; like earthworm Paratenic or transport
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