MMW12 Midterm1 Terms - Key Names Terms Religion and Empire...

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Key Names & Terms Religion and Empire Polybius’s view of checks and balances - Roman Republic had three types (monarchy [the Consuls], aristocracy [Senate], and democracy [citizens] of government elements. They all checked and balanced each other by not giving supreme power to one of them. Each had its specific roles. Two Consul System - Consuls were the highest elected officers and figurative representative of Roman Republic. Two were elected together with veto power over each other. - Military power, introducing foreign ambassadors to the Senate, punishment of people. Powers of the Senate - Regulates issues with public money. Permission or decree must be given by a senate for others to use. Tribune of the Plebes - Could veto actions by magistrates that were detrimental specifically on behalf of plebeians. Patricians vs. Plebeians - Upper class wealthy; women didn’t have to work & many had slaves vs. lower class citizens; even the women worked at the fields & slaves IF they could afford but was rare. - Mainly patricians had the power of checks and balances. System was dominated by Patricians. Sumptuary laws regarding rites - Religious officers have to participate in rituals. - Don’t be prideful or showy in rites. Bible says not to “show off” doing good deeds or rites; don’t let people know. Corruption in Senate - Latifundias - Very extensive parcel of privately owned land for agriculture. Depended on slave labors. First earned from spoils of war. Challenges of provincial management First Triumvirate (Pompey, Julius Caesar, Crassus) - Each all got power. How first imperialism in Rome began. Crossing the Rubicon - “point of no return.” Julius Caesar’s army crossed the Rubicon river, considered an act of insurrection. Princeps - “first citizen.” Pontifex Maximus - Religious Authority. Chief high priest with supreme power. Augustus was Pontifex Maximus. Caesar Augustus - Augustus: “The Revered One” Semi-divine title. Imperial Household Pax Romana
- “Roman peace.” Long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by the Roman Empire under Caesar Augustus. Encouraged trade between regions. - Refers to Roman system- legal system that kept it together. Romans were able to bring relative stability in many different regions. Mare Nostrum - When Roman empire extended largely from Syria and Palestine to Spain and north Africa. “our sea.” The Mediterranean became a Roman lake and Romans called it mare nostrum. Paul of Tarsus - Apostle Paul. Probably the most influential early Christian missionary and leader. Spread the Gospel throughout the Roman Empire. Wrote most of the New Testament (almost half). Grew up in Jerusalem though. Spoke in Hebrews at the court to defend. State of Cilicia - Capital: Tarsus, where Paul was born. The fact that Paul was born in Cilicia with Roman citizenship gave him the rights. They did not, though, set him free because of it politics; accused of many Jews.

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