Science emerged mid 1800s grew out of social upheaval

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Unformatted text preview: aval The Scientific Method Auguste Comte and Positivism Applying the Scientific Method to Social World Coined the Term "Sociology" "Armchair Philosophy" Herbert Spencer--Social Darwinism Second Founder of Sociology Lower and Higher Forms of Society Coined Phrase "Survival of the Fittest" Karl Marx and Class Conflict Engine of Human History is Class Conflict The Bourgeoisie vs. The Proletariat Bourgeoisie wealthy land owners, factory owners (the powerful) Proletariat working class, reliant on Bourgeoisie for financial security. Social relations did not consist of harmonious, "functional" relationships, but of social conflict between the haves and the havenots. Durkheim and Social Integration Got Sociology Recognized as Separate Discipline Studied How Social Forces Affect Behavior Identified "Social Integration"--Degree to Which People are Tied to Social Group Collective conscience underlying set of moral norms that gives the members of a society the shared feeling that they belong to something larger than themselves as individuals Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic Religion and the Origin of Capitalism Religion is Central Force in Social Change Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism Rise of bureaucracies social organizations based on written rules and procedures and designed to coordinate the ac...
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