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March 31 2008 - Reasoning use of reasons to defend or...

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March 31, 2008 Reasoning- use of reasons to defend or arrive at a conclusion Four types of reasoning Deductive Reasoning: specific conclusion that comes from a general principle Ex: All humans are mortal I am human I am mortal Inductive Reasoning: opposite of deduction: specific to general Ex: This lemon was sour That lemon was sour The next lemon was sour All lemons are sour Causal Reasoning- “if, then statement” Relies on expert testimony Ex: If you lower the drinking age, more accidents will occur (based on this information) Analogical Reasoning- to draw an analogy is to draw similarities from one situation to another Ex: I remember when this happened… Ex: The Iraq War is the Vietnam War all over again Fallacies- the result of reasoning gone bad Four types of fallacies Either/or: choice by presenting two but completely opposite alternatives. No middle ground. To move people in a single direction saying one path is okay and the other is not Ex: You’re either with us, or against us
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