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Unformatted text preview: ine a cost center. A cost center
is perhaps better defined by what is lacking; the absence of revenue, or at least the absence of
control over revenue generation.
Human resources, accounting, legal, and other administrative departments are expensive to support
and do not directly contribute to revenue generation. Cost centers are also present on the factory
floor. Maintenance and engineering fall into this category. Many businesses also consider the actual
manufacturing process to be a cost center even though a saleable product is produced (the sales
“responsibility” is shouldered by other units).
It stands to reason that assessments of cost control are key in evaluating the performance of cost
centers. This chapter will show how standard costs and variance analysis can be used to pinpoint
areas where performance is above or below expectation. Cost control should not be confused with
cost minimization. It is easy to reduce costs to the point of destroying enterprise effectiveness. The
goal is to control costs while maintaining enterprise effectiveness.
Nonfinancial metrics are also useful in monitoring cost centers: documents processed, error rates,
customer satisfaction surveys, and other similar measures can be used. The concept of a balanced
scorecard is discussed later in this chapter, and it can be very relevant to evaluating the performance
of a cost center. Download free ebooks at bookboon.com
8 Responsibility Accounting and Management by Exception Tools for Enterprise Performance Evaluation 1.4 Profit Center
Some business units have control over both costs and revenues and are therefore evaluated on their
profit outcomes. For such profit centers, “cost overruns” are expected if they are coupled with
commensurate gains in revenue and profitability.
A restaurant chain may evaluate each store as a separate profit center. The store manager is
responsible for the store’s revenues and expenses. A store with more revenue would obviously
generate more food costs; an assessment of food cost alone would be foolhardy without giving
consideration to the store’s revenues. For such profit centers, the flexible budgets discussed in this
chapter are particularly useful evaluative tools. Other metrics include unit-by-unit profitability
analysis using ratio tools introduced in the financial analysis chapter. 1.5 Investment Center
At higher levels within an organization, unit managers will be held accountable not only for cost
control and profit outcomes, but also for the amount of investment capital that is deployed to
achieve those outcomes. In other words, the manager is responsible for adopting strategies that
generate solid returns on the capital they are entrusted to deploy. Evaluation models for investment
centers become more complex and diverse. They usually revolve around various calculated rates of
One popular method was pioneered by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. It is commonly
known as the DuPont return on investment (ROI) m...
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