notes2 - Waldensians late 1100s Followers of Peter Waldo...

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Waldensians late 1100s Followers of Peter Waldo – Lyon, France Sought to emulate Christ through piety and proverty Attacked immorality of the clergy Roman Catholic church used him as a heretic “danger”, driven out some survived because they hid Cathar Doctrine Duality- fight between two equals- Good and Evil o Good= kingdom of good lord o Evil= the material and time passing reality of the visable physical world Catharism early 1200s Believed in ‘Manichaeism’, two gods, one good and the other evil God of old testament the evil one, who creates an evil, earthly like home Believed in abstinence, as body trapped the soul in evil earth Christ, not god, but angel because couldn’t be flesh Strong in S. France, until destroyed by Crusade 1208-29, led by Simon Demontfort o Believed If good Christian then it doesn’t matter if they are killed o Reason: more important to safeguard the group Francis of Assisi 1181-1226 Grassroots appeal to poor- reject wealth Respected authority of church and the Sacraments Opposed formal education- because people would be “brainwashed” and start questioning what they know Given the right to hear confession because church wants to use them so they don’t cause threat Dominicans Founded by St. Dominic
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Valued education as a mean of combating heresy Involved in cathar debates Humanism “Improve yourself” Made achievement of individual excellence prime goal of life People capable of excellence and it is their duty to achieve it Outstanding humanists include Petrarch, Boccaccio, and Erasmus Erasmus argued that harmony between human nature and religion leads to happiness Duty as individual to be “best that you can be” – not ant religion European Expansion Religion was the call, gold was the reason (god and money) Desire to break Muslim/Venetian monopolies push W. Europe south and west Trade provided wealth, centrialized government Crusading mission of exploration Technology: sailing ships, guns, navigational equipment Want to change everything including intimate details Portuguese Empire Sail around Africa but didn’t find much until they reached gold coast, ivory coast, slave coast, sugar Desired to break spice, monopoly by going around Africa, sponsored by Prince Henry the navigator (1394-1460) 1488 Bartholomeu diaz reached south coast of Africa 1498 vasco de gama sails around Africa to India Major source of sugar and spice colonies, using slave labor on African coast, India, Indonesia Overseas Expansion Interior of Africa not really explored because waterfalls and rough terrain main goal was to get to India, so Africa not explored by Europeans until later
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Spanish Empire Unlike Portuguese, Spain heads west to Asia 1492 Columbus stumbles across America 1530 Spain had conquered Aztec and Inca Empires in Mexico and Peru 1520-21 Magellan sailed around the world
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notes2 - Waldensians late 1100s Followers of Peter Waldo...

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