notes1 - Waldensians late 1100s Followers of Peter Waldo...

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Waldensians late 1100s Followers of Peter Waldo – Lyon, France Sought to emulate Christ through piety and proverty Attacked immorality of the clergy Roman Catholic church used him as a heretic “danger”, driven out some survived because they hid Cathar Doctrine Duality- fight between two equals- Good and Evil o Good= kingdom of good lord o Evil= the material and time passing reality of the visable physical world Catharism early 1200s Believed in ‘Manichaeism’, two gods, one good and the other evil God of old testament the evil one, who creates an evil, earthly like home Believed in abstinence, as body trapped the soul in evil earth Christ, not god, but angel because couldn’t be flesh Strong in S. France, until destroyed by Crusade 1208-29, led by Simon Demontfort o Believed If good Christian then it doesn’t matter if they are killed o Reason: more important to safeguard the group Francis of Assisi 1181-1226 Grassroots appeal to poor- reject wealth Respected authority of church and the Sacraments Opposed formal education- because people would be “brainwashed” and start questioning what they know Given the right to hear confession because church wants to use them so they don’t cause threat Dominicans
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Founded by St. Dominic Valued education as a mean of combating heresy Involved in cathar debates Renaissance 1350-1600 Artists and thinkers recover and apply ancient learning from Greece and Rome Begin in the Italian city states of Florence, Venice, Milian, Rome Emerged with the simulataneous growth of commercial health Started in Italy because located near water for trade routes, far from powerful nations Society favored secularism and individualism Humanism “Improve yourself” Made achievement of individual excellence prime goal of life People capable of excellence and it is their duty to achieve it Outstanding humanists include Petrarch, Boccaccio, and Erasmus Erasmus argued that harmony between human nature and religion leads to happiness Duty as individual to be “best that you can be” – not ant religion Machiavelli and “the Prince” 1513 Florentine diplomat argued that medieval and humanists beliefs were naïve Rational use of force more important than virtue Mercenary forces inefficient compared to professional armies A ‘reputation’ for wisdom or virtue more important than actual possession Truth doesn’t matter, only appearance European Expansion Religion was the call, gold was the reason (god and money) Desire to break Muslim/Venetian monopolies push W. Europe south and west Trade provided wealth, centrialized government
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Crusading mission of exploration Technology: sailing ships, guns, navigational equipment Want to change everything including intimate details Navigation Astrolabe quad, compass, Travers board Portuguese Empire Sail around Africa but didn’t find much until they reached gold coast, ivory coast, slave
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notes1 - Waldensians late 1100s Followers of Peter Waldo...

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