12 15 system management mode smm the io instruction

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Unformatted text preview: Value of Flag After Entry to SMM 0 0 1 1 Value of Flag When Exiting SMM 0 1 0 1 Action of Processor When Exiting SMM Returns to next instruction in interrupted program or task Unpredictable Returns to next instruction after HLT instruction Returns to HALT state If the HLT instruction is restarted, the processor will generate a memory access to fetch the HLT instruction (if it is not in the internal cache), and execute a HLT bus transaction. This behavior results in multiple HLT bus transactions for the same HLT instruction. 12.10.1. Executing the HLT Instruction in SMM The HLT instruction should not be executed during SMM, unless interrupts have been enabled by setting the IF flag in the EFLAGS register. If the processor is halted in SMM, the only event that can remove the processor from this state is a maskable hardware interrupt or a hardware reset. 12.11. SMBASE RELOCATION The default base address for the SMRAM is 30000H. This value is contained in an internal processor register called the SMBASE register. The operating system or executive can relocate the SMRAM by setting the SMBASE field in the saved state map (at offset 7EF8H) to a new value (refer to Figure 12-4). The RSM instruction reloads the internal SMBASE register with the value in the SMBASE field each time it exits SMM. All subsequent SMI requests will use the new SMBASE value to find the starting address for the SMI handler (at SMBASE + 8000H) and the SMRAM state save area (from SMBASE + FE00H to SMBASE + FFFFH). (The processor resets the value in its internal SMBASE register to 30000H on a RESET, but does not change it on an INIT.) In multiple-processor systems, initialization software must adjust the 12-14 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT MODE (SMM) SMBASE value for each processor so that the SMRAM state save areas for each processor do not overlap. (For Pentium® and Intel486™ processors, the SMBASE values must be aligned on a 32-KByte boundary or the processor will enter shutdown state during the execution of a RSM instruction.) 31 0 SMM Base Register Offset 7EF8H Figure 12-4. SMBASE Relocation Field If the SMBASE relocation flag in the SMM revision identifier field is set, it indicates the ability to relocate the SMBASE (refer to Section 12.9., “SMM Revision Identifier”). 12.11.1. Relocating SMRAM to an Address Above 1 MByte In SMM, the segment base registers can only be updated by changing the value in the segment registers. The segment registers contain only 16 bits, which allows only 20 bits to be used for a segment base address (the segment register is shifted left 4 bits to determine the segment base address). If SMRAM is relocated to an address above 1 MByte, software operating in realaddress mode can no longer initialize the segment registers to point to the SMRAM base address (SMBASE). The SMRAM can still be accessed by using 32-bit address-size override prefixes to generate an offset to the correct address. For example, if the SMBASE has been relocated to FFFFFFH (immediately below the 16-MByte boundary) and the DS, ES, FS, and GS registers are still initialized to 0H, data in SMRAM can be accessed by using 32-bit displacement registers, as in the following example: mov mov esi,00FFxxxxH; 64K segment immediately below 16M ax,ds:[esi] A stack located above the 1-MByte boundary can be accessed in the same manner. 12.12. I/O INSTRUCTION RESTART If the I/O instruction restart flag in the SMM revision identifier field is set (refer to Section 12.9., “SMM Revision Identifier”), the I/O instruction restart mechanism is present on the processor. This mechanism allows an interrupted I/O instruction to be re-executed upon returning from SMM mode. For example, if an I/O instruction is used to access a powered-down I/O device, a chip set supporting this device can intercept the access and respond by asserting SMI#. This action invokes the SMI handler to power-up the device. Upon returning from the SMI handler, the I/O instruction restart mechanism can be used to re-execute the I/O instruction that caused the SMI. 12-15 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT MODE (SMM) The I/O instruction restart field (at offset 7F00H in the SMM state-save area, refer to Figure 12-5) controls I/O instruction restart. When an RSM instruction is executed, if this field contains the value FFH, then the EIP register is modified to point to the I/O instruction that received the SMI request. The processor will then automatically re-execute the I/O instruction that the SMI trapped. (The processor saves the necessary machine state to insure that re-execution of the instruction is handled coherently.) 15 0 I/O Instruction Restart Field Register Offset 7F00H Figure 12-5. I/O Instruction Restart Field If the I/O instruction restart field contains the value 00H when the RSM instruction is executed, then the processor begins program execution with the instruction following the I/O instruction. (When a repeat prefix is being used, the next instruction may be the next I/O instruction in the repeat loop.) Not re-executing the interrupted I/O instruction is the default behavior; the processor automatically initializes the I/O instruction restart field to 00H upon entering SMM. Table 12-4 summarizes the states of the I/O instruction restart field. T...
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This note was uploaded on 06/07/2013 for the course ECE 1234 taught by Professor Kwhon during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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