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Unformatted text preview: th no writeback) instruction invalidates all data and instruction entries in the internal caches and TLBs and sends a signal to the external caches indicating that they should be invalidated also. The WBINVD (invalidate cache with writeback) instruction performs the same function as the INVD instruction, except that it writes back any modified lines in its internal caches to memory before it invalidates the caches. After invalidating the internal caches, it signals the external caches to write back modified data and invalidate their contents. The INVLPG (invalidate TLB entry) instruction invalidates (flushes) the TLB entry for a specified page. 2-21 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW 2.6.5. Controlling the Processor The HLT (halt processor) instruction stops the processor until an enabled interrupt (such as NMI or SMI, which are normally enabled), the BINIT# signal, the INIT# signal, or the RESET# signal is received. The processor generates a special bus cycle to indicate that the halt mode has been entered. Hardware may respond to this signal in a number of ways. An indicator light on the front panel may be turned on. An NMI interrupt for recording diagnostic information may be generated. Reset initialization may be invoked. (Note that the BINIT# pin was introduced with the Pentium® Pro processor.) The LOCK prefix invokes a locked (atomic) read-modify-write operation when modifying a memory operand. This mechanism is used to allow reliable communications between processors in multiprocessor systems. In the Pentium® and earlier Intel Architecture processors, the LOCK prefix causes the processor to assert the LOCK# signal during the instruction, which always causes an explicit bus lock to occur. In the P6 family processors, the locking operation is handled with either a cache lock or bus lock. If a memory access is cacheable and affects only a single cache line, a cache lock is invoked and the system bus and the actual memory location in system memory are not locked during the operation. Here, other P6 family processors on the bus writeback any modified data and invalidate their caches as necessary to maintain system memory coherency. If the memory access is not cacheable and/or it crosses a cache line boundary, the processor’s LOCK# signal is asserted and the processor does not respond to requests for bus control during the locked operation. The RSM (return from SMM) instruction restores the processor (from a context dump) to the state it was in prior to an system management mode (SMM) interrupt. 2.6.6. Reading Performance-Monitoring and Time-Stamp Counters The RDPMC (read performance-monitoring counter) and RDTSC (read time-stamp counter) instructions allow an application program to read the processors performance-monitoring and time-stamp counters, respectively. The P6 family processors have two 40-bit performance counters that record either the occurrence of events or the duration of events. The events that can be monitored include the number of instructions decoded, number of interrupts received, of number of cache loads. Each counter can be set up to monitor a different event, using the system instruction WRMSR to set up values in the model-specific registers PerfEvtSel0 and PerfEvtSel1. The RDPMC instruction loads the current count in counter 0 or 1 into the EDX:EAX registers. The time-stamp counter is a model-specific 64-bit counter that is reset to zero each time the processor is reset. If not reset, the counter will increment ~6.3 x 10 15 times per year when the processor is operating at a clock rate of 200 MHz. At this clock frequency, it would take over 2000 years for the counter to wrap around. The RDTSC instruction loads the current count of the time-stamp counter into the EDX:EAX registers. 2-22 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW Refer to Section 15.5., “Time-Stamp Counter”, and Section 15.6., “Performance-Monitoring Counters”, in Chapter 15, Debugging and Performance Monitoring, for more information about the performance monitoring and time-stamp counters. The RDTSC instruction was introduced into the Intel Architecture with the Pentium® processor. The RDPMC instruction was introduced into the Intel Architecture with the Pentium® Pro processor and the Pentium® processor with MMX™ technology. Earlier Pentium® processors have two performance-monitoring counters, but they can be read only with the RDMSR instruction, and only at privilege level 0. 2.6.7. Reading and Writing Model-Specific Registers The RDMSR (read model-specific register) and WRMSR (write model-specific register) allow the processor’s 64-bit model-specific registers (MSRs) to be read and written to, respectively. The MSR to be read or written to is specified by the value in the ECX register. The RDMSR instruction reads the value from the specified MSR into the EDX:EAX registers; the WRMSR writes the value in the EDX:EAX registers into the specified MSR. Refer to Section 8.4., “Model-Specific Registers (MSRs)” in Chapter 8, Processor Management and Initialization for more information about the MSRs. The RDMSR and WRMSR instructions were introduced into the Intel Architectu...
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This note was uploaded on 06/07/2013 for the course ECE 1234 taught by Professor Kwhon during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '10