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Unformatted text preview: ctions: 1. Stores the state of the current task in the current TSS. 2. Loads the task register with the segment selector for the new task. 3. Accesses the new TSS through a segment descriptor in the GDT. 4. Loads the state of the new task from the new TSS into the general-purpose registers, the segment registers, the LDTR, control register CR3 (page-table base address), the EFLAGS register, and the EIP register. 5. Begins execution of the new task. A task can also be accessed through a task gate. A task gate is similar to a call gate, except that it provides access (through a segment selector) to a TSS rather than a code segment. 2.1.4. Interrupt and Exception Handling External interrupts, software interrupts, and exceptions are handled through the interrupt descriptor table (IDT), refer to Figure 2-1. The IDT contains a collection of gate descriptors, which provide access to interrupt and exception handlers. Like the GDT, the IDT is not a segment. The linear address of the base of the IDT is contained in the IDT register (IDTR). The gate descriptors in the IDT can be of the interrupt-, trap-, or task-gate type. To access an interrupt or exception handler, the processor must first receive an interrupt vector (interrupt number) from internal hardware, an external interrupt controller, or from software by means of an INT, INTO, INT 3, or BOUND instruction. The interrupt vector provides an index into the IDT to a gate descriptor. If the selected gate descriptor is an interrupt gate or a trap gate, the associated handler procedure is accessed in a manner very similar to calling a procedure through a call gate. If the descriptor is a task gate, the handler is accessed through a task switch. 2-4 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW 2.1.5. Memory Management The system architecture supports either direct physical addressing of memory or virtual memory (through paging). When physical addressing is used, a linear address is treated as a physical address. When paging is used, all the code, data, stack, and system segments and the GDT and IDT can be paged, with only the most recently accessed pages being held in physical memory. The location of pages (or page frames as they are sometimes called in the Intel Architecture) in physical memory is contained in two types of system data structures (a page directory and a set of page tables), both of which reside in physical memory (refer to Figure 2-1). An entry in a page directory contains the physical address of the base of a page table, access rights, and memory management information. An entry in a page table contains the physical address of a page frame, access rights, and memory management information. The base physical address of the page directory is contained in control register CR3. To use this paging mechanism, a linear address is broken into three parts, providing separate offsets into the page directory, the page table, and the page frame. A system can have a single page directory or several. For example, each task can have its own page directory. 2.1.6. System Registers To assist in initializing the processor and controlling system operations, the system architecture provides system flags in the EFLAGS register and several system registers: • • The system flags and IOPL field in the EFLAGS register control task and mode switching, interrupt handling, instruction tracing, and access rights. Refer to Section 2.3., “System Flags and Fields in the EFLAGS Register” for a description of these flags. The control registers (CR0, CR2, CR3, and CR4) contain a variety of flags and data fields for controlling system-level operations. With the introduction of the Pentium® III processor, CR4 now contains bits indicating support Pentium® III processor specific capabilities within the OS. Refer to Section 2.5., “Control Registers” for a description of these flags. The debug registers (not shown in Figure 2-1) allow the setting of breakpoints for use in debugging programs and systems software. Refer to Chapter 15, Debugging and Performance Monitoring, for a description of these registers. The GDTR, LDTR, and IDTR registers contain the linear addresses and sizes (limits) of their respective tables. Refer to Section 2.4., “Memory-Management Registers” for a description of these registers. The task register contains the linear address and size of the TSS for the current task. Refer to Section 2.4., “Memory-Management Registers” for a description of this register. Model-specific registers (not shown in Figure 2-1). • • • • The model-specific registers (MSRs) are a group of registers available primarily to operatingsystem or executive procedures (that is, code running at privilege level 0). These registers control items such as the debug extensions, the performance-monitoring counters, the machinecheck architecture, and the memory type ranges (MTRRs). The number and functions of these
2-5 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW registers varies among the different members of the Intel Architecture processor families. Section 8.4., “Model-Specific Register...
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This note was uploaded on 06/07/2013 for the course ECE 1234 taught by Professor Kwhon during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '10