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Unformatted text preview: enabled when the VME flag is set to 1, the IOPL value is less than 3, and the bit for the interrupt or exception vector in the redirection bit map is set to 0. With method 6 interrupt handling, software interrupts are handled in the same manner as was described for method 5 handling (refer to Section 22.214.171.124., “Method 5: Software Interrupt Handling”). Method 6 differs from method 5 in that with the IOPL value set to less than 3, the VIF and VIP flags in the EFLAGS register are enabled, providing virtual interrupt support for handling class 2 maskable hardware interrupts (refer to Section 16.3.2., “Class 2—Maskable Hardware Interrupt Handling in Virtual-8086 Mode Using the Virtual Interrupt Mechanism”). These flags provide the virtual-8086 monitor with an efficient means of handling maskable hardware interrupts that occur during a virtual-8086 mode task. Also, because the IOPL value is less than 3 and the VIF flag is enabled, the information pushed on the stack by the processor when invoking the interrupt handler is slightly different between methods 5 and 6 (refer to Table 16-2). 16.4. PROTECTED-MODE VIRTUAL INTERRUPTS
The Intel Architecture processors (beginning with the Pentium® processor) also support the VIF and VIP flags in the EFLAGS register in protected mode by setting the PVI (protected-mode 16-27 8086 EMULATION virtual interrupt) flag in the CR4 register. Setting the PVI flag allows applications running at privilege level 3 to execute the CLI and STI instructions without causing a general-protection exception (#GP) or affecting hardware interrupts. When the PVI flag is set to 1, the CPL is 3, and the IOPL is less than 3, the STI and CLI instructions set and clear the VIF flag in the EFLAGS register, leaving IF unaffected. In this mode of operation, an application running in protected mode and at a CPL of 3 can inhibit interrupts in the same manner as is described in Section 16.3.2., “Class 2—Maskable Hardware Interrupt Handling in Virtual-8086 Mode Using the Virtual Interrupt Mechanism” for a virtual-8086 mode task. When the application executes the CLI instruction, the processor clears the VIF flag. If the processor receives a maskable hardware interrupt when the VIF flag is clear, the processor invokes the protected-mode interrupt handler. This handler checks the state of the VIF flag in the EFLAGS register. If the VIF flag is clear (indicating that the active task does not want to have interrupts handled now), the handler sets the VIP flag in the EFLAGS image on the stack and returns to the privilege-level 3 application, which continues program execution. When the application executes a STI instruction to set the VIF flag, the processor automatically invokes the general-protection exception handler, which can then handle the pending interrupt. After handing the pending interrupt, the handler typically sets the VIF flag and clears the VIP flag in the EFLAGS image on the stack and executes a return to the application program. The next time the processor receives a maskable hardware interrupt, the processor will handle it in the normal manner for interrupts received while the processor is operating at a CPL of 3. As with the virtual mode extension (enabled with the VME flag in the CR4 register), the protected-mode virtual interrupt extension only affects maskable hardware interrupts (interrupt vectors 32 through 255). NMI interrupts and exceptions are handled in the normal manner. When protected-mode virtual interrupts are disabled (that is, when the PVI flag in control register CR4 is set to 0, the CPL is less than 3, or the IOPL value is 3), then the CLI and STI instructions execute in a manner compatible with the Intel486™ processor. That is, if the CPL is greater (less privileged) than the I/O privilege level (IOPL), a general-protection exception occurs. If the IOPL value is 3, CLI and STI clear or set the IF flag, respectively. PUSHF, POPF, and IRET are executed like in the Intel486™ processor, regardless of whether protected-mode virtual interrupts are enabled. It is only possible to enter virtual-8086 mode through a task switch or the execution of an IRET instruction, and it is only possible to leave virtual-8086 mode by faulting to a protected-mode interrupt handler (typically the general-protection exception handler, which in turn calls the virtual 8086-mode monitor). In both cases, the EFLAGS register is saved and restored. This is not true, however, in protected mode when the PVI flag is set and the processor is not in virtual8086 mode. Here, it is possible to call a procedure at a different privilege level, in which case the EFLAGS register is not saved or modified. However, the states of VIF and VIP flags are never examined by the processor when the CPL is not 3. 16-28 17
Mixing 16-Bit and 32-Bit Code MIXING 16-BIT AND 32-BIT CODE CHAPTER 17 MIXING 16-BIT AND 32-BIT CODE
Program modules written to run on Intel Architecture processors can be either 16-bit modules or 32-bit modules. Table 17-1 shows the characteristic of 16-bit and 3...
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This note was uploaded on 06/07/2013 for the course ECE 1234 taught by Professor Kwhon during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '10