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Unformatted text preview: . Disable interrupts. 2. Change the previous task link field in the TSS of the pre-empting task (the task that suspended the task to be removed). It is assumed that the pre-empting task is the next task (newer task) in the chain from the task to be removed. Change the previous task link field should to point to the TSS of the next oldest or to an even older task in the chain. 3. Clear the busy (B) flag in the TSS segment descriptor for the task being removed from the chain. If more than one task is being removed from the chain, the busy flag for each task being remove must be cleared. 4. Enable interrupts. 6-16 TASK MANAGEMENT In a multiprocessing system, additional synchronization and serialization operations must be added to this procedure to insure that the TSS and its segment descriptor are both locked when the previous task link field is changed and the busy flag is cleared. 6.5. TASK ADDRESS SPACE The address space for a task consists of the segments that the task can access. These segments include the code, data, stack, and system segments referenced in the TSS and any other segments accessed by the task code. These segments are mapped into the processor’s linear address space, which is in turn mapped into the processor’s physical address space (either directly or through paging). The LDT segment field in the TSS can be used to give each task its own LDT. Giving a task its own LDT allows the task address space to be isolated from other tasks by placing the segment descriptors for all the segments associated with the task in the task’s LDT. It also is possible for several tasks to use the same LDT. This is a simple and memory-efficient way to allow some tasks to communicate with or control each other, without dropping the protection barriers for the entire system. Because all tasks have access to the GDT, it also is possible to create shared segments accessed through segment descriptors in this table. If paging is enabled, the CR3 register (PDBR) field in the TSS allows each task can also have its own set of page tables for mapping linear addresses to physical addresses. Or, several tasks can share the same set of page tables. 6.5.1. Mapping Tasks to the Linear and Physical Address Spaces Tasks can be mapped to the linear address space and physical address space in either of two ways: • One linear-to-physical address space mapping is shared among all tasks. When paging is not enabled, this is the only choice. Without paging, all linear addresses map to the same physical addresses. When paging is enabled, this form of linear-to-physical address space mapping is obtained by using one page directory for all tasks. The linear address space may exceed the available physical space if demand-paged virtual memory is supported. Each task has its own linear address space that is mapped to the physical address space. This form of mapping is accomplished by using a different page directory for each task. Because the PDBR (control register CR3) is loaded on each task switch, each task may have a different page directory. • The linear address spaces of different tasks may map to completely distinct physical addresses. If the entries of different page directories point to different page tables and the page tables point to different pages of physical memory, then the tasks do not share any physical addresses. 6-17 TASK MANAGEMENT With either method of mapping task linear address spaces, the TSSs for all tasks must lie in a shared area of the physical space, which is accessible to all tasks. This mapping is required so that the mapping of TSS addresses does not change while the processor is reading and updating the TSSs during a task switch. The linear address space mapped by the GDT also should be mapped to a shared area of the physical space; otherwise, the purpose of the GDT is defeated. Figure 6-8 shows how the linear address spaces of two tasks can overlap in the physical space by sharing page tables. TSS Task A TSS Page Directories Page Tables Page Frames Task A Page PDBR PDE PDE PTE PTE PTE Shared PT Task A Page Task A Page Shared Page PTE PTE Task B TSS Shared Page Task B Page PDBR PDE PDE PTE PTE Task B Page Figure 6-8. Overlapping Linear-to-Physical Mappings 6.5.2. Task Logical Address Space To allow the sharing of data among tasks, use any of the following techniques to create shared logical-to-physical address-space mappings for data segments: • Through the segment descriptors in the GDT. All tasks must have access to the segment descriptors in the GDT. If some segment descriptors in the GDT point to segments in the linear-address space that are mapped into an area of the physical-address space common to all tasks, then all tasks can share the data and code in those segments. Through a shared LDT. Two or more tasks can use the same LDT if the LDT fields in their TSSs point to the same LDT. If some segment descriptors in a shared LDT point to segments that are mapped to a common area of the physical...
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This note was uploaded on 06/07/2013 for the course ECE 1234 taught by Professor Kwhon during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '10