Each entry provides a pointer called a vector to an

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Unformatted text preview: cessor can be switched to virtual-8086 mode to run 8086 programs. This mode also duplicates the execution environment of the Intel 8086 processor, with extensions. In virtual-8086 mode, an 8086 program runs as a separate protectedmode task. Legacy 8086 programs are thus able to run under an operating system (such as Microsoft Windows*) that takes advantage of protected mode and to use protected-mode facilities, such as the protected-mode interrupt- and exception-handling facilities. Protected-mode multitasking permits multiple virtual-8086 mode tasks (with each task running a separate 8086 program) to be run on the processor along with other nonvirtual-8086 mode tasks. This section describes both the basic real-address mode execution environment and the virtual8086-mode execution environment, available on the Intel Architecture processors beginning with the Intel386™ processor. 16.1. REAL-ADDRESS MODE The Intel Architecture’s real-address mode runs programs written for the Intel 8086, Intel 8088, Intel 80186, and Intel 80188 processors, or for the real-address mode of the Intel 286, Intel386™, Intel486™, Pentium®, Pentium® Pro, Pentium® II, and P6-family processors. The execution environment of the processor in real-address mode is designed to duplicate the execution environment of the Intel 8086 processor. To an 8086 program, a processor operating in real-address mode behaves like a high-speed 8086 processor. The principal features of this architecture are defined in Chapter 3, Basic Execution Environment, of the Intel Architecture Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1. The following is a summary of the core features of the real-address mode execution environment as would be seen by a program written for the 8086: 16-1 8086 EMULATION • The processor supports a nominal 1-MByte physical address space (refer to Section 16.1.1., “Address Translation in Real-Address Mode” for specific details). This address space is divided into segments, each of which can be up to 64 KBytes in length. The base of a segment is specified with a 16-bit segment selector, which is zero extended to form a 20-bit offset from address 0 in the address space. An operand within a segment is addressed with a 16-bit offset from the base of the segment. A physical address is thus formed by adding the offset to the 20-bit segment base (refer to Section 16.1.1., “Address Translation in Real-Address Mode”). All operands in “native 8086 code” are 8-bit or 16-bit values. (Operand size override prefixes can be used to access 32-bit operands.) Eight 16-bit general-purpose registers are provided: AX, BX, CX, DX, SP, BP, SI, and DI. The extended 32 bit registers (EAX, EBX, ECX, EDX, ESP, EBP, ESI, and EDI) are accessible to programs that explicitly perform a size override operation. Four segment registers are provided: CS, DS, SS, and ES. (The FS and GS registers are accessible to programs that explicitly access them.) The CS register contains the segment selector for the code segment; the DS and ES registers contain segment selectors for data segments; and the SS register contains the segment selector for the stack segment. The 8086 16-bit instruction pointer (IP) is mapped to the lower 16-bits of the EIP register. Note this register is a 32-bit register and unintentional address wrapping may occur. The 16-bit FLAGS register contains status and control flags. (This register is mapped to the 16 least significant bits of the 32-bit EFLAGS register.) All of the Intel 8086 instructions are supported (refer to Section 16.1.3., “Instructions Supported in Real-Address Mode”). A single, 16-bit-wide stack is provided for handling procedure calls and invocations of interrupt and exception handlers. This stack is contained in the stack segment identified with the SS register. The SP (stack pointer) register contains an offset into the stack segment. The stack grows down (toward lower segment offsets) from the stack pointer. The BP (base pointer) register also contains an offset into the stack segment that can be used as a pointer to a parameter list. When a CALL instruction is executed, the processor pushes the current instruction pointer (the 16 least-significant bits of the EIP register and, on far calls, the current value of the CS register) onto the stack. On a return, initiated with a RET instruction, the processor pops the saved instruction pointer from the stack into the EIP register (and CS register on far returns). When an implicit call to an interrupt or exception handler is executed, the processor pushes the EIP, CS, and EFLAGS (low-order 16-bits only) registers onto the stack. On a return from an interrupt or exception handler, initiated with an IRET instruction, the processor pops the saved instruction pointer and EFLAGS image from the stack into the EIP, CS, and EFLAGS registers. A single interrupt table, called the “interrupt vector table” or “interrupt table,” is provided for handling interrupts and exceptions (refer to Figure 16...
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