Refer to the description of the call instruction in

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Unformatted text preview: t selector, stack pointer, or stack-segment descriptor cause an invalid TSS (#TS) exception to be generated. 3. Checks the stack-segment descriptor for the proper privileges and type and generates an invalid TSS (#TS) exception if violations are detected. 4. Temporarily saves the current values of the SS and ESP registers. 5. Loads the segment selector and stack pointer for the new stack in the SS and ESP registers. 6. Pushes the temporarily saved values for the SS and ESP registers (for the calling procedure) onto the new stack (refer to Figure 4-11). 7. Copies the number of parameter specified in the parameter count field of the call gate from the calling procedure’s stack to the new stack. If the count is 0, no parameters are copied. 8. Pushes the return instruction pointer (the current contents of the CS and EIP registers) onto the new stack. 9. Loads the segment selector for the new code segment and the new instruction pointer from the call gate into the CS and EIP registers, respectively, and begins execution of the called procedure. Refer to the description of the CALL instruction in Chapter 3, Instruction Set Reference, in the Intel Architecture Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 2, for a detailed description of the privilege level checks and other protection checks that the processor performs on a far call through a call gate. 4-22 PROTECTION Calling Procedure’s Stack Called Procedure’s Stack Calling SS Parameter 1 Parameter 2 Parameter 3 ESP Calling ESP Parameter 1 Parameter 2 Parameter 3 Calling CS Calling EIP ESP Figure 4-11. Stack Switching During an Interprivilege-Level Call The parameter count field in a call gate specifies the number of data items (up to 31) that the processor should copy from the calling procedure’s stack to the stack of the called procedure. If more than 31 data items need to be passed to the called procedure, one of the parameters can be a pointer to a data structure, or the saved contents of the SS and ESP registers may be used to access parameters in the old stack space. The size of the data items passed to the called procedure depends on the call gate size, as described in Section 4.8.3., “Call Gates” 4.8.6. Returning from a Called Procedure The RET instruction can be used to perform a near return, a far return at the same privilege level, and a far return to a different privilege level. This instruction is intended to execute returns from procedures that were called with a CALL instruction. It does not support returns from a JMP instruction, because the JMP instruction does not save a return instruction pointer on the stack. A near return only transfers program control within the current code segment; therefore, the processor performs only a limit check. When the processor pops the return instruction pointer from the stack into the EIP register, it checks that the pointer does not exceed the limit of the current code segment. On a far return at the same privilege level, the processor pops both a segment selector for the code segment being returned to and a return instruction pointer from the stack. Under normal conditions, these pointers should be valid, because they were pushed on the stack by the CALL instruction. However, the processor performs privilege checks to detect situations where the current procedure might have altered the pointer or failed to maintain the stack properly. 4-23 PROTECTION A far return that requires a privilege-level change is only allowed when returning to a less privileged level (that is, the DPL of the return code segment is numerically greater than the CPL). The processor uses the RPL field from the CS register value saved for the calling procedure (refer to Figure 4-11) to determine if a return to a numerically higher privilege level is required. If the RPL is numerically greater (less privileged) than the CPL, a return across privilege levels occurs. The processor performs the following steps when performing a far return to a calling procedure (refer to Figures 4-2 and 4-4 in the Intel Architecture Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1, for an illustration of the stack contents prior to and after a return): 1. Checks the RPL field of the saved CS register value to determine if a privilege level change is required on the return. 2. Loads the CS and EIP registers with the values on the called procedure’s stack. (Type and privilege level checks are performed on the code-segment descriptor and RPL of the codesegment selector.) 3. (If the RET instruction includes a parameter count operand and the return requires a privilege level change.) Adds the parameter count (in bytes obtained from the RET instruction) to the current ESP register value (after popping the CS and EIP values), to step past the parameters on the called procedure’s stack. The resulting value in the ESP register points to the saved SS and ESP values for the calling procedure’s stack. (Note that the byte count in the RET instruction must be chosen to match the p...
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