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Unformatted text preview: T VM=0 VM=1 Interrupt or Exception2 Virtual-8086 Mode RESET Virtual-8086 Mode Tasks (8086 Programs) #GP Exception3 IRET4 IRET5 Redirect Interrupt to 8086 Program Interrupt or Exception Handler6 NOTES: 1. Task switch carried out in either of two ways: - CALL or JMP where the VM flag in the EFLAGS image is 1. - IRET where VM is 1 and NT is 1. 2. Hardware interrupt or exception; software interrupt (INT n) when IOPL is 3. 3. General-protection exception caused by software interrupt (INT n), IRET, POPF, PUSHF, IN, or OUT when IOPL is less than 3. 4. Normal return from protected-mode interrupt or exception handler. 5. A return from the 8086 monitor to redirect an interrupt or exception back to an interrupt or exception handler in the 8086 program running in virtual8086 mode. 6. Internal redirection of a software interrupt (INT n) when VME is 1, IOPL is <3, and the redirection bit is 1. Figure 16-3. Entering and Leaving Virtual-8086 Mode When a task switch is used to enter virtual-8086 mode, the TSS for the virtual-8086-mode task must be a 32-bit TSS. (If the new TSS is a 16-bit TSS, the upper word of the EFLAGS register is not in the TSS, causing the processor to clear the VM flag when it loads the EFLAGS register.) The processor updates the VM flag prior to loading the segment registers from their images in the new TSS. The new setting of the VM flag determines whether the processor interprets the 16-12 8086 EMULATION contents of the segment registers as 8086-style segment selectors or protected-mode segment selectors. When the VM flag is set, the segment registers are loaded from the TSS, using 8086style address translation to form base addresses. Refer to Section 16.3., “Interrupt and Exception Handling in Virtual-8086 Mode” for information on entering virtual-8086 mode on a return from an interrupt or exception handler. 16.2.6. Leaving Virtual-8086 Mode The processor can leave the virtual-8086 mode only through an interrupt or exception. The following are situations where an interrupt or exeception will lead to the processor leaving virtual-8086 mode (refer to Figure 16-3): • The processor services a hardware interrupt generated to signal the suspension of execution of the virtual-8086 application. This hardware interrupt may be generated by a timer or other external mechanism. Upon receiving the hardware interrupt, the processor enters protected mode and switches to a protected-mode (or another virtual-8086 mode) task either through a task gate in the protected-mode IDT or through a trap or interrupt gate that points to a handler that initiates a task switch. A task switch from a virtual-8086 task to another task loads the EFLAGS register from the TSS of the new task. The value of the VM flag in the new EFLAGS determines if the new task executes in virtual-8086 mode or not. The processor services an exception caused by code executing the virtual-8086 task or services a hardware interrupt that “belongs to” the virtual-8086 task. Here, the processor enters protected mode and services the exception or hardware interrupt through the protected-mode IDT (normally through an interrupt or trap gate) and the protected-mode exception- and interrupt-handlers. The processor may handle the exception or interrupt within the context of the virtual 8086 task and return to virtual-8086 mode on a return from the handler procedure. The processor may also execute a task switch and handle the exception or interrupt in the context of another task. The processor services a software interrupt generated by code executing in the virtual8086 task (such as a software interrupt to call a MS-DOS* operating system routine). The processor provides several methods of handling these software interrupts, which are discussed in detail in Section 16.3.3., “Class 3—Software Interrupt Handling in Virtual8086 Mode” Most of them involve the processor entering protected mode, often by means of a general-protection (#GP) exception. In protected mode, the processor can send the interrupt to the virtual-8086 monitor for handling and/or redirect the interrupt back to the application program running in virtual-8086 mode task for handling. Intel Architecture processors that incorporate the virtual mode extension (enabled with the VME flag in control register CR4) are capable of redirecting software-generated interrupts back to the program’s interrupt handlers without leaving virtual-8086 mode. Refer to Section, “Method 5: Software Interrupt Handling” for more information on this mechanism. • • 16-13 8086 EMULATION • • A hardware reset initiated by asserting the RESET or INIT pin is a special kind of interrupt. When a RESET or INIT is signaled while the processor is in virtual-8086 mode, the processor leaves virtual-8086 mode and enters real-address mode. Execution of the HLT instruction in virtual-8086 mode will cause a general-protection (GP#) fault, which the protected-mode handler generally sends to the virtual-8086 monitor. The virtual-8086 monitor then determines the correct execution sequence after verifying that it was entered as a result of a HLT execution. Refer to Section 16.3., “Interrupt and Exception Handling in Virtual-8086 Mode” for information on leaving virtual-8086 mode to han...
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