Exams 5 Review Sheet - Review Sheet for Exam 5 Institutions...

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Review Sheet for Exam 5 Institutions Lecture Institutions Definition “The rules of the game or…the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction.” Formal vs. Informal Institutions Formal EU, UN, WTO Electoral college Geneva convention Informal Restraint in conflict Killing political leaders Culture According to Robert Keohane, the benefits of international institutions are that they 1. Reduce transaction costs 2. Allow for side-payments 3. Provide Information Reducing Transaction Costs -Institutions can reduce the costs of transactions between two willing parties (EBay, Facebook) and help solve the collective action problem. -Examples from IR -WTO/GATT -European Union -NATO Sidepayments Trading benefits in one issue area for benefits in another issue area. Example from the European Union: -Germany gets control of the European Central Bank -France gets extra EU farm subsidies -The UK gets a “rebate” on EU tax payments Provide Information Focal Points Geneva Conventions Anti-bribery agreements Monitoring and Evaluation UN Weapons Inspectors United Students Against Sweatshops
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Hegemony and International Institutions According to Keohane , international institutions are costly to create. Thus, existing international institutions are valuable even if they’re not perfect. They are often built by the hegemon, but live on. The Value of International Institutions Martin and Simmons argue that international institutions seldom have a third party enforcer. The “International” Value of International Institutions Martin and Simmons argue that international institutions: Signal to other countries But, signals must be costly Solve collective action problems The “Domestic” Value of International Institutions Distributional politics within a country. Breaks legislative deadlock Time-inconsistency Signaling to the domestic constituency Types of Issues Facing International Institutions Collaboration Problems Incentives to defect. But, mutual restraint leads to socially optimal outcomes. Coordination Problems Choosing among multiple equilibria. Generate a focal point. Most problems have an element of both. Why do countries abide by international institutions? 1. Explicit punishment 2. The value of these institutions, and reneging can destroy the institution. 3. Audience costs Research Design Issues Problems with studying institutions. We only study the international institutions that exist. Thus they were created by countries and they survived. The Role of Power
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course POL SCI 103 taught by Professor Jensen during the Fall '07 term at Washington University in St. Louis.

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Exams 5 Review Sheet - Review Sheet for Exam 5 Institutions...

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