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History, Research, Nervous System, Consiousness

History, Research, Nervous System, Consiousness -...

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Psychology (the basics) From the Latin word “psyche”, meaning “mind” Most basic definition of psychology psychology is the study of the mind Psychology focuses on the individual whereas sociology focuses on groups Psychologists fall into two categories: o Research Based Developmental Psychology Social Psychology Experimental Psychology – work on core, lower-level functioning Cognitive Psychology – higher function behavior Physiological Psychology – body and mind interaction Personality Psychology o Practice Based Clinical Psychology – mental illnesses and psychological disorders Counseling Psychology – minor personal problems Educational Psychology Industrial/Organizational Psychology History of Psychology Psychology is the “child” of Philosophy and Physiology o Philosophy could ask questions, but couldn’t provide proof of answers o Physiology could tell how the brain worked, but couldn’t apply it to everyday life o Scientific Revolution brought the two together Wilhelm Wundt – professor in Germany in the late 1800s o Father of Psychology o 1 st person to claim that Psychology was a science and deserved to be its own discipline o Trained students to open Psych labs G. Stanley Hall – student of Wundt who fathered American Psychology. Opened the 1 st American Psych lab, founded the 1 st professional psych organization, and published the 1 st psych journal Much of psychology’s history is comprised of debates o 1 st debate in psychology was over the difference between structuralism and functionalism Structuralism – what is the structure of the mind Functionalism – what in the function of the mind Freudian though (early 1900s) o Sigmund Freud – Austrian physician and father of “the psychodynamic perspective” o Argued that there is an unconscious part of the mind that controls the bulk of what we feel and think
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o Theories were criticized because they returned too far to philosophy but was incredibly influential in getting psychologists to study different areas of the mind. Behaviorism (early 1900s) o John Watson o Argued that we should only study that which we can observe o Behavior is paramount to thoughts and emotions and believed that nurture and the environment greatly influenced behaviors o Had a huge impact on research psychology o Sparred with Freudian theory from the 1920s to the 1940s o B.F. Skinner – gave behaviorism its second wind Argued that in order to understand behavior, we need to know the environment in which it is coming from Behavior can be changed with reinforcement and punishment Humanism o Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers o Argued that being human is unique and important and that emotions DO matter in understanding behavior o Felt that the purpose of human existence is to maximize potential o Opened the door to studying behavior and emotions together Cognitive Research (1960s) o Kicked behaviorism out the door o Asked the question “What causes people to behave the way they do?”
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