Learning, Memory, Intelligence, Development

Learning, Memory, Intelligence, Development - Learning...

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Learning Learning – a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience o Learning happens both voluntarily and involuntarily o Learned behaviors cannot be explained by native response tendencies, maturation, or temporary states of the subject (e.g. fatigue, drugs, etc.) Three types of learning/conditioning: o Classical conditioning – a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke response that was originally evoked by another stimulus Ivan Pavlov – dogs salivated due to changes in their environment that indicated that they were soon to be fed Unconditioned association : Unconditioned stimulus – stimulus that evokes a natural/biological response Neutral stimulus – stimulus that evokes no natural response Unconditioned response – the biological response caused by an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned association Conditioned stimulus – neutral stimulus that has come to be associated with the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response – response to the conditioned stimulus Timing – presenting a conditioned stimulus half a second before the unconditioned stimulus maximizes the learning potential Simultaneous conditioning – stimuli are presented at the same time Short-delayed conditioning – CS is presented shortly before the UCS (best kind of conditioning) Trace conditioning Backward conditioning Phobias – irrational fears commonly caused by classical conditioning Terms in Classical Conditioning: Acquisition – initial stage of learning in which the UCS and the CS are presented over and over again Extinction – the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency Spontaneous recovery – after a period of extinction, the tendency for a conditioned response to return, though not with the same strength Stimulus generalization – occurs when an organism that has formed a response to a specific stimulus responds in the
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same way to a new stimulus that is similar to the original stimulus Stimulus discrimination – occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to a new stimulus that is similar to the original o Operant conditioning – a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences B. F. Skinner – stated that we do things if something good happens when we do them and we don’t do things if something bad happens when we do them The Skinner box – a box designed to test reinforcement, cannot be used with humans Punishment and reinforcement Reinforcement – when an event followed by a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response o Primary reinforcement – reinforcement that satisfies a basic biological need o Secondary reinforcement – reinforcement that allows you to satisfy a basic biological need but does not satisfy that need in itself
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '07 term at University of Delaware.

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Learning, Memory, Intelligence, Development - Learning...

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