Motivation, Emotion, Social Psychology

Motivation, Emotion, Social Psychology - Motivation Hunger...

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Motivation Hunger o Environmental determinants of hunger: Food related cues and other situational factors Presence of other people Availability of food in our environment Learned preferences and habits Stress Sexual Motivation o Sex is a unique biological motive, a species would die without the motivation to have sex o Biological determinants of sex: Hormonal regulation Hormones secreted by the gonads o Females ovaries estrogen Estrogen is not as strongly linked to sexual motivation as testosterone o Males testes androgens (testosterone) There needs to be a minimal threshold of testosterone in the body to stimulate sexual motivation Reciprocal relationship between testosterone and sexual motivation; an increase in one leads to an increase in the other Pheromones – o Mixed evidence that pheromones affect human sexual behavior Males androstenol Secreted in men’s sweat When androstenol mixes with oxygen, it turns into androsenone which is not appealing to women unless they are ovulating Cutler study – put pheromones in cologne and recorded how it changed sexual behavior o saw changes in behavior of the opposite sex, but not in self-behavior Females copulines Secreted in women’s vaginal secretion
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– put pheromones in perfume and recorded how it changed sexual behavior o saw changes in behavior of the opposite sex, but not in self-behavior Environmental Determinants of sex: Erotic materials o 70% - 90% of people report an increase in arousal from erotic materials o The more explicit the materials, the more aroused people tend to be o Men tend to be more aroused by erotic materials than men o Leads to increases in common sexual behavior, not new sexual behavior o Can lead to decreases in arousal to one’s partner Attractiveness to potential partners Evolutionary Determinants of sex: Parental investment theory: o Men have the shorter investment to pass on their genes o Women have the longer investment to pass on their genes o Parental certainty – women know 100% that they have passed on their genes, but men will never have that certainty Emotions Emotion – an evaluative response to a situation o We are built to display emotion very well developed facial muscles o Emotion appears to be universal Ekman’s core emotions – happiness, sadness, disgust, anger, fear, surprise o We are fairly good at reading emotions o We may not display emotions
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Motivation, Emotion, Social Psychology - Motivation Hunger...

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