Class Notes - Measuring Radio Audiences Arbitron major...

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03/13/07 Measuring Radio Audiences Arbitron – major ratings company for radio Average persons – number of persons listening to a radio station for at least 5 minutes during any quarter hour Cume – number of different people who listen to a particular radio station in one week Radio and Economic Survival Morning drive – time when radio has the highest number of listeners (6:00 AM to 10:00 AM) Frequency allocation – FCC grants an exclusive right to use a radio frequency in a specific market o Electromagnetic frequency spectrum – a natural resource 50% allocated to commercial broadcasters 50% allocated to U.S. military (NTIA monitors these frequencies, not FCC) A few frequencies set aside for land mobile communication World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) – countries come together to divide up spectrum frequencies 13,000 radio station in the USA o 9% (1,200) are owned by Clear Channel Communications o Corporations may own 8 radio stations in large cities and 5 radio stations in smaller markets no limit on total number owned Radio Formats o Radio stations choose formats based on: What other local radio stations are airing Demographic composition of their audiences Potential for attracting certain demographic groups of listeners to advertisers (having a viable economic base) o Satellite Radio 2000 XM and Sirius Subscribers pay $11 a month to get radio with no commercials Sirius paid $500 million for 5-year contract with Howard Stern Now XM and Sirius are asking FCC for a merger o NAB is opposed to merger would be a monopoly on satellite radio Music Industry Technical Developments in recording industry o 1877 – Thomas Edison invented the Dictaphone (cylinder)
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Not quality enough to play music, used for voice recording o 1888 – Emil Berliner introduced “shellac” (later called “vinyl”) discs In use until development of compact discs (CDs) in 1980s
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Class Notes - Measuring Radio Audiences Arbitron major...

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