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PSY203studyguide3 - CH 12 Piaget's Concrete Operational...

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CH 12 Piaget’s Concrete Operational stage- Reasoning becomes logical Understand conservation Can organize hierarchically Not yet abstract thinkers Thinking is flexible & organized Major characteristics/achievement of operational thought- - Conservation Centration Decentration: the child will no longer perceive an exceptionally wide but short cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller cup. Irreversibility Reversibility: child will be able to understand the numbers can be changed & then returned to their original state ( ex. 4+4=8, 8-4=4) - Classification Able to focus on general category and specific categori es - Seriation Physical Transitive inference (mental) A is longer than B, B is longer than C, therefore A is longer than C - Spatial Reasoning Mental rotations Cognitive maps Recent research on operational thought- Culture & schooling affect performance on tasks Information processing helps: o F ree up working memory o Central c onceptual structures o Training & teaching Information Processing- is an approach to the goal of understanding how people think; it looks at the steps a person takes to solve a problem Two changes in info processing and relation to brain development- 1. Increase in information-processing capacity 2. Gains in cognitive inhibition Development of attention and memory during middle childhood- Attention becomes more: - Selective (C ognitive P erformance T est example) Adaptable - Symbol Search Planful - Learning to plan 1. Production deficiency- they fail to produce strategies when they could be helpful 2. Control deficiency- they fail to control (or execute) strategies effectively 3. Utilization deficiency- can execute strategies but it doesn’t improve their performance 4. Effective strategy deficiency- children use strategies and performance improves
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Memory Strategies- REO - R ehearsal (repetition of information) - E laboration (creating a relationship/shared meaning between 2+ pieces of info that are not members of the same category ex. fish & pipe elaboration = a fish smoking a pipe ) - O rganization (grouping related items) Meaningful chunks Linking Retrieval School age child’s theory of mind- Mind is seen as active & constructive They understand more about sources of knowledge Schooling helps promote development of theory of mind Knowledge of strategies improves What is the school age child’s self-regulation like? School-age children often have difficulty putting what they know about thinking into action; children know they are supposed to pay attention in class, memorize items, reread things if they don’t understand them at first but they don’t always do that It’s a process of continuously monitoring progress toward learning a goal, checking outcome, and redirecting effort Parents & teachers can help foster self-regulation by pointing out the task, encouraging use of strategies, and emphasizing the value of self-correction
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