1.Definition a.Total Fertility Rate- Average number of children will have after she is done having kids. b.The desirable level in the US is 2.1- population perspective if every woman has two kids population will stay the same. We don’t have to worry about resources or extinction. 2.Past Concerns about too much childbearing and rapid population growth a.Child Mortality was really high. Population remained steady, and we had to have a lot of kids to keep a few b.Huge Growth in population. From less than a billion to more than 8 billion. b.i.Advances in public health, sanitation, nutrition, agriculture that brought death rates down rapidly. c.Large families will not be able to support the growing population. 20th century baby boom. Population bomb- we would run out of resources. d.Demographic Transition Theory: historic equilibrium any society that faced the heavy mortality than you must have high fertility. All societies are focused toward high fertility. Society had to be arranged in a way so that people had many children. e.Adaptation orientation towards kids. e.i.Up until the 19th century children were expected to by mini-adults. No parental sentiment and little sorrow for child loss. Parents could not afford to be attached to children with the high chance of dying. e.ii.The rise of the child king- family life is central. Shift to having far fewer children where each one is precious in an individual manor. e.iii.Economically useful Economically worthless, but emotionally priceless child. f.