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TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE - Chapter 1 Methods of Acquiring...

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Chapter 1: Methods of Acquiring Knowledge: Authority- something is true because some person of distinction says it’s true Rationalism- uses reasoning alone to arrive at knowledge All mortal things die All men are mortal things All men die Intuition- knowledge is acquired through sudden insight & not by reason Often occurs after reasoning has failed Scientific Method- uses reasoning & intuition to establish truth; relies on objective assessment Variables- conditions or characteristics that can have different values - Gender, age, depression, anxiety, treatment condition Independent Variables- variables that are manipulated in an experiment Dependent Variables- variables in an experiment that are expected to be affected or changed by the independent variable Descriptive Statistics- used to describe, summarize, & make understandable a group of numbers from a research study Inferential Statistics - used to draw conclusions and make inferences about a larger population based on data collection from a sample of that population Qualitative Variables- - Variables that assume non-numeric values - Measured on a normal scale - Often quantified for research Quantitative Variables- - Variables that assume numeric values - Measured on an ordinal, interval, or ratio scale - Tell you how much there is of what is being measured Ordinal Variables (aka Rank Order Variables)- Numbers are ordered in the sense that higher numbers equal higher values 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd No ‘true’ zero point Interval Variables- Differences between values are about equal amounts of what is being measured Celsius scale Greater differences = greater magnitude Smaller differences = smaller magnitude Ratio Variables- Differences between values represent equal differences in magnitude Absolute zero point (complete absence of the variable)
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Kelvin Scale, Age Continuous Variables- can theoretically have an infinite number of values between adjacent units on the scale Weight Age Height Discrete Variables-
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